• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Open Book Paper 2008

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemistry (Salters) Skills for Chemistry: Open-Book Paper In radioactive decay, atomic nuclei play an important part in ?- and ?-decay. ?-decay involves the disintegration of an atomic nucleus to emit the ?-particle, whereas in ?-decay, a neutron inside the atomic nucleus is converted into a proton and an electron, which is released as the ?-particle. The particles released are different as well, since the ?-particle is made from two protons and two neutrons, similar to a helium-4 particle and the ?-particle is an electron. This means that if different elements are formed if the same element went through ?- and ?-decay. ?-decay 224Ra88 --> 220Rn86 + 4He2 ?-decay 225Ra88 --> 225Ac89 + 0e--1 ?-decay can happen to any element, from the smallest and lightest, to the largest and heaviest, while ?-decay only usually happens in the heavier elements. It usually does not happen in elements with atomic numbers smaller than 83[1]. This means that ?-decay usually does not continue past Bismuth and its' isotopes, whereas ?-decay can go all the way to ...read more.

Middle

Once the helium is made, it becomes easier to make larger nuclei, like neon or magnesium: 4He + 4He --> 8Be 4He + 8Be --> 12C 12C + 4He --> 16O 16O + 4He --> 20Ne 20Ne + 4He --> 24Mg When the carbon nuclei is formed, they can combine to form larger elements, like magnesium: 12C + 12C --> 24Mg Although magnesium-24 is not an unstable isotope, it may split and form other stable nuclei: 12C + 12C --> 23Na + 1H 12C + 12C --> 20Ne + 4He This produces more helium and hydrogen that can be used to make the other small nuclei, or the helium nucleus can collide with the hydrogen nucleus to make lithium: 4He + 3T --> 7Li There is also another way to make it, by using different isotopes of helium: 4He + 3He --> 7Be 7Be + e- --> 7Li The second step of the reaction is a form of ?-decay called electron capture[5], which occurs when there are too many protons in the nucleus. ...read more.

Conclusion

The fission products are better at absorbing neutrons than the uranium, which makes the reaction die out. Because of this, around 96% of the fuel put in is not used[9]. The radioactive waste is then stored underwater because the gamma (?) rays reflect off the water molecules and use up their energy in the water. The waste can either be kept underwater, or they can be put into special casts deep underground. Unfortunately, the UK does not have the facilities to keep them underground. Nuclear fusion happens when two or more atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier element. Nuclear fusion can either release or absorb energy. Fusion reactions are preferred because they are safer than fission reactions as only a small amount of fuel is put in and the length of radioactivity is shorter as well. A disadvantage of using nuclear fusion is that is still produces greenhouse gases. Although nuclear power is supposed to be an alternative to fossil fuels, methane is formed inside the tokamak by the helium particles eroding the carbon tiles of the inner lining. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. The open-book paper on nuclear fission and fusion reactions.

    This makes them good ammunition for hitting an atomic nucleus hoping it would fuse with it and make the nucleus heavier. The physicist hoped to make heavier new elements than uranium. Nuclear fission reactions differ from radioactive decay, both in a way which the reaction must be started and in the type of products formed.

  2. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    In general, I found that the solution turned colourless at a much slower speed at lower concentrations. At the same time this means that the reaction occurred quicker at higher concentrations. This can be simply explained by referring back to the collision theory that I mentioned earlier in my investigation.

  1. Open-Book Paper: Radioactive Decay, Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion

    elements, such as lithium:8 Lithium can also be produced by the collision of a Beryllium-7 nucleus and an electron. The nuclear process that takes place here is electron capture, in which an atom captures an electron, turning a proton into a neutron and releasing a neutrino.

  2. Electrochemistry - Inventing Better Batteries

    will increase the voltage and current readings of the original Daniell Cell. A salt bridge, in chemistry, is a device used to connect the oxidation and reduction half-cells of an electrochemical cell. It is also apart of the internal circuit of the cell with the external circuit being the wire that connects the anode to the cathode.

  1. Fission and Fusion

    Nevertheless, nuclear changes happen when lithium and other elements in the first three periods of the periodic table are being formed.

  2. Chemistry open book paper - Nuclear Fission and Fusion

    3He � 7Be 7Be + electron � 7Li The second route is interesting; this is because it is a form of electron capture. This is where the collision between an atom and an electron causes the proton to convert to a neutron and a neutrino is released.

  1. Advanced subsidiary GCE Salters chemistry open book paper

    The products then diffuse away from the catalyst, leaving it intact. Noxer blocks are an example of Heterogenous catalysts. They contain a 5-7mm thick coating of titanium dioxide, which acts as a photocatalyst, using UV rays from the sun to render NOx into a harmless nitrate.

  2. OPEN BOOK FUSION AND FISSION

    star undergoes more fusion in this case helium 4 fuses with a nucleus of tritium to form a nucleus of lithium with 3 protons and 4 neutrons for a mass number of 7. [200] 4He + 3H --> 7Li The heavier elements formed will continue to fuse to create heavier

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work