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Organelles in animal cells and bacteria cells

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1. Bacteria Cells Nucleoid: It is the region within a prokaryotic cell that most or all of the genetic material (primary DNA) is found. This is because the DNA could be present in more than one place within the cytoplasm due to having no nucleus with a membrane. The DNA is found in a circular shape as oppose to eukaryotic cells (which have a more string-like DNA). Ribosomes: Although the shapes and sizes of prokaryotic ribosomes slightly differ from the eukaryotic ones; they have the same function within the cell, which is building protein by translating the code that is provided by the DNA with the help of tRNA and mRNA. They are composed of around the half of the amount of ribosomal RNA that construct eukaryotic ribosomes. Cell Wall: The prokaryotic cell wall surrounds the cell membrane and protects it from external factors such as the change in water pressure. The bacterial cell wall is composed of a substance made of sugars and amino acids, named ?peptidoglycan?. The layer of peptidoglycan in the cell wall differs from gram-positive bacteria (thick- multi layered) ...read more.


It has the same function and role in yeast, plant and animal cells. It directs the operations carried out in the cell. Golgi apparatus: These flattened sac-like structures receive protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (including other hormones) and carries out some process to modify them; the modification may include the addition of sugar molecules with the help of enzymes that are located in the sacs. The protein is then packaged and transported to the cell membrane for secretion. Secretory Vesicles: These are membrane-bound organelles which carry material that will be secreted through the cell membrane, and they usually fuse with it. They are derived from the Golgi apparatus. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: This organelle is membrane-bound and it is responsible in the synthesis of protein which is later secreted through the cell membrane or fused with the membrane. Some modification of the protein that is being synthesised may take place in the rough endoplasmic reticulum; it is sent to the Golgi apparatus for further modification. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: They are generally responsible in the synthesis of lipids, which are very important substances that are part of the cell membrane. ...read more.


which is broken down into smaller particles before entering the mitochondrial site to produce chemical energy. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is created at the end of the process of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts: These green and small organelles are mainly found in plant cells. Their function is to produce chemical energy for the cell by converting the sun?s energy; the process is called ?photosynthesis?. Chlorophylls (green pigments attached to chloroplasts) that capture sunlight and use it to transform carbon dioxide into carbon to make sugar (chemical energy). Centrioles: These barrel-like organelles are found in animal cells rather than plant cells and yeast cells. They aid in the process of cell division, this is their main function. They produce spindle fibres which pull the each of the sister chromatids to the opposite poles of the cell during mitosis. Cilia: These hair-like structures are placed on the outer membrane of the cell. They generally work to move substances past the cell, for example, the ciliated cells that line the trachea in animal cells, move past mucus which contains dirt and other particles which may be inhaled is moved back out through the wind pipe to be coughed out. ...read more.

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