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Organizational Structure Simulation Analysis

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                                                                          Organizational Structure

Organizational Structure Simulation Analysis

Team A

ORG/502 – Human Relations and Organizational Behavior

Prof. L.J. Sanna

November 4, 2004

Organizational Structure

To improve is to change; to be perfect is to change often.
-- Winston Churchill

Change often engenders perceptions of ambiguity and insecurity, leading to feelings of anxiety and fear. These feelings underlie the numerous cases of resistance encountered in organizations when change is introduced. Most instances of change in an organization have both a technical and a social aspect.

“Lewin conceptualized change as a process with three phases: (1) Unfreezing – behavior that increases the receptivity of the client system to a possible change in the distribution and balance of social forces; (2) moving – altering the magnitude, direction, or number of driving and resisting forces, consequently shifting the equilibrium to a new level; and (3) refreezing- reinforcing the new distribution of forces, thereby maintaining and stabilizing the new social equilibrium.” (Zand, Dale E. & Sorensen, Richard E.)

Drivers of Change

Internal Drivers of Change

  1. Lack of trained personnel. In this case, the company lacked sufficient personnel trained in networking solutions to grow their networking business to 80% of total revenue in twelve months.
  1. Lack of innovation.
...read more.


1.      Grow revenue to $12 Million in next year

2.      Convert network solutions from 20% to 80% of total revenue.

3.      Increase overall productivity by four percent overall.

4.      Reduce absenteeism by two percent overall

The factors related to successful implementation of the new organizational structure are:

  1. Increase number of skilled networking personnel to enable the networking business growth demanded by the CEO.
  2. Improve internal communications between personnel, management, and teams.
  3. Re-structure the organizational hierarchy such that project leaders manage the personnel, not department managers.
  4. Develop a pool of employees that can be pulled into projects based upon skill levels.
  5. Improve productivity
  6. Reduce absenteeism
  7. Creation of standardized and mature processes.

Potential Areas of Resistance

“Resistance is a change-oriented process that follows certain stereotyped sequences of behaviors. These sequences are promulgated by intentional actors who cue cultural forms (rituals) in order to guide interaction. This process can be understood as a social drama composed of four stages: breach, crisis, redress, and reintegration.”
(McFarland, D.)

This resistance can be displayed in at least two forms, active or passive.

 “Passive resistance is a tacit, indirect subversion of the normative codes … and is at most an expression of malcontent and critique….

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If you have the right human with the right knowledge in the right place doing the right thing, it is amazing how simple a change appears to be.  I use the word “appears”, because the change may not be simple and the solution may not be simple, but the right human or humans with effective communication and correct information will make it look like it is.  While this may be an over simplification, I believe the human element is still the number one factor in creating successful or less than successful businesses.


(UoP) Organization Structure Simulation; University of Phoenix; Retrieved November 2, 2004 ; https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/resource/vendors/tata/sims/hrob/hrob_simulation3.html

(Zand, Dale E. & Sorensen, Richard E.) Theory of Change and the Effective Use of Management Science; Administrative Science Quarterly; Dec75, Vol. 20 Issue 4, p532

(McFarland, D.) Resistance as a Social Drama: A Study of Change-Oriented Encounters; American Journal of Sociology; May2004, Vol. 109 Issue 6, p1249

(McFarland, D.) Resistance as a Social Drama: A Study of Change-Oriented Encounters; American Journal of Sociology; May2004, Vol. 109 Issue 6, p1263

(Kreitner−Kinick) Creating Effective Organizations; Organizational Behavior, 6th Edition; McGraw-Hill, 2003; Chapter 18

...read more.

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