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Our aim is to investigate how much quicker a reaction happens if the acid we uses strength goes up, and also to see if there is a pattern which could be carried on to higher strength acids.

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Introduction

RATES OF REACTION INVESTIGATION Aim:- Our aim is to investigate how much quicker a reaction happens if the acid we uses strength goes up, and also to see if there is a pattern which could be carried on to higher strength acids. Background Science:- Chemical reactions play a very important part in our life, some even keep us alive (the process of our digestion system is a series of chemical reactions which convert food into chemicals which can be more easily used by our bodies), other circumstances where chemical reactions are used in our bodies that cut down the amount of acid in your stomach, there are also chemicals in washing powder for removing stains by using chemicals called enzymes which speed up the breakdown of the chemicals in stains. All chemical reactions happen at various speeds, such as chemicals in fireworks which react very fast, within seconds of the firework being lit the reaction is over. Slow chemical reactions could be such things as the ripening of cheese so it can mature over time. Some adhesives we use require two chemicals to be mixed depending on the amounts used it could make the glue harden quickly or slowly. Some reactions happen slowly whereas some happen very fast. The name in which we measure a speed of a reaction is called a "Rate Of Reaction". ...read more.

Middle

The acid will hit the calcium carbonate, if there is enough energy in the acid the calcium and acid will react together to give off Carbon Dioxide. The more the particles collide the faster they react. I have made a predicted graph, showing what I think the graph will look like. I have drawn in the lines of best fit showing the steepness of the line. This diagram shows how the acid particles collide with the marble chip to give off a gas. Method:- Set up apparatus as shown above. 1. Measure out desired amount of marble chips. 2. Measure out desired amount of hydrochloric acid - 0.25 mole first, then when all experiments with 1 mole have been completed go onto 0.5 mole then 1 mole then 1.5 and finally 2 mole. 3. Fill up the water bowl. 4. Fill measuring cylinder with water up to 100 ml. 5. Holding hand over the top of the measuring cylinder quickly turn it upside down and place it under the water (as shown above). If the water comes out refill the cylinder and try again. 6. Place tube so one end is coming up in the cylinder under water. 7. Put the marbles in the chronicle flask. 8. Pour in the hydrochloric acid and quickly affix the top with the tube coming out of it into the chronicle flask. ...read more.

Conclusion

This may have meant we had unfair results. The main anomalous results were the 1 mole results, because from the information we have (collision theory) it tells us that it is stronger than the 0.5 mole which means it should be lower than on the graph than 0.5. But it isn't. This may have been because the results were read wrong, the acid we used may have been slightly too strong or the marble chips we used may have been smaller which means it is easier for the acids to break down. To improve the accuracy we could use a burette, which are far more accurate than a measuring cylinder or a gas cylinder. Gas Syringe Burette Computer data collectors are a very accurate way of registering the time, also if you were to use a camera recorder so you could look back at it and pause it when it got to the times when you needed to record a time. The results would never be the same because sometimes the measurement of marble chips maybe slightly more or less, or the accuracy of reading the time would be slightly out etc. As I said earlier in my investigation the results seemed to become more reliable as the strength of acid went up. Although it should be less accurate to measure the time as the acid strength went up it seemed to be more accurate. James Lane 11N - Rates Of Reaction Investigation ...read more.

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