• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline different methods of separating substances.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Chromatography Chromatography- this is used for separating mixtures of coloured compounds, the mixtures that are used to be separate in chromatography includes liquids like dyes, ink and most commonly colouring agents in food. Chromatography is carried out on a single piece of paper is used where a small sample is placed at the bottom of the paper where it is then placed vertically in a solvent such as water where it soaks up the paper and carries the sample with it, it allows the mixtures to separate at different rates, so it just allows the ?industry? to identify the different compounds in the mixture. Distillation- (simple) this is where a liquid is separated from a solution, commonly used to purify water to make it distilled where it is separated ...read more.

Middle

Centrifugation- this another method to separate substances but uses centrifugal force to separate the mixture with a ?centrifuge? commonly used in industry and science labs, the machine itself spins at high speeds where it forces separates the substances that have different densities, this is done by the centrifuge being at an axis when it spins so it creates a g-force, so the speed accelerates differently at different angles. Filtration- most common method for separating solid from liquid, more specifically insoluble solid like rock from a liquid such as water, this process does not require no heating or cooling or other method but just filter paper where it is placed upon a filter above a beaker where then the mixture is poured through the top only allowing the liquid pass and the solid just sits on the filter paper. ...read more.

Conclusion

liquid, faster cooling allows more smaller crystals to emerge whereas slow cooling allows small amount of larger crystals but they both have the same density. Solvent extraction- it works by placing the substances in a material mixture that has two different solubility?s, in the machine which mechanical vibrations are used shake the different mixtures together, so it is a process using solvents to separate compounds, the different materials are separated depending on their solubilities, so it makes the solution pure this can be done by using pivalic acid. Electrophoresis- it is the movement of charge particle within a liquid under the influence of a electric field, they are used to separate molecules depending on their size, shape and charge, it is also used to find the mass of an item. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    I did enough repeats to ensure that I had three results for each experiment with times all within 10% of the average time of each other. I believe that this is sufficiently accurate to ensure that the results I have obtained are reliable.

  2. Double Displacement Reactions

    Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2NaC2H3O2(aq) --> Ca(C2H3O2)2(aq) + 2NaNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + MgCl2(aq) --> CaCl2(aq) + Mg(NO3) (aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + NaOH(aq) --> Ca(OH)2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq) 3Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2FeCl3(aq) --> 3CaCl2(aq) + 2Fe(NO3)3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + K2CrO4 --> Ca(CrO4)2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + Zn(NO3)2 --> Ca(NO3)2(aq) + Zn(NO3)2(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + NaBr --> CaBr2(aq) + 2NaNO3(aq) 3Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq) --> Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaNO3(aq) 2Na3PO4(aq)

  1. Describe the construction, operation and application of distillation equipment used in industry

    Sieve Trays: Lighter than bubble caps, but still heavy compared to shower trays. No valves or caps to add weight. Valve Trays: The heaviest of all the tray types, weight to efficiency is very low. The valves situated on the top of the tray add to the weight.

  2. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    Relating back to my theory section, this shows that the reaction, with respect to sulphuric acid, is second order. This in turn means that I have proved the final rate equation to be: Rate = k[BrO3][Br -][H+]2 This is exactly what I predicted at the beginning of my investigation.

  1. Identification of amino acids by chromatography.

    It is called an imino acid and belongs to the secondary amino group. Because of its unique colour it is the normally the easiest to find on the paper. If I calculate the distance moved by the compound by the Rf value (0.43)

  2. Alkaloids are the most diverse group of secondary metabolites and over 5000 compounds are ...

    Biosynthesis It is possible to determine the amino acid from which an alkaloid is derived just by looking at the structure. Before availability of radio-isotopes 14C and tritium, and more recently the stable isotopes 13C and 15N it was only possible to speculate about the likely biosynthetic pathways.

  1. Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as ...

    and therefore atomic radius increases. -Atomic radius The radius of the atom decreases across a period due to the increasing nuclear charge causing the valence electron to be attracted closer to the nucleus. Down a group the atomic radius increases as more electrons shells are added to the atom.

  2. Analysing Dyes Through Gel Electrophoresis

    Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to separate the tracking dyes and determine their molecular charge. The experiment displayed how fragments were separated based on their size, which in turn affected how fast they were able to move through the gel.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work