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patterns of growth and development

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Introduction

Becky Simon AO1 - Patterns of growth and development From 0-8 years of a persons life they grow and develop in many different ways. Physical types of growth are height, weight and teeth growth. There are different types of development; these are physical, intellectual and social/ emotional development. A description of these and what topics come in them are as follows; Physical development This is the way in which the body increases in skill and becomes more complex in its performance. It includes; *Gross motor skills - these are large muscles in the body, it includes being able to run, walk, jump and skip. * Fine motor skills- this includes gross skills and fine skills for example drawing, using a knife and fork. * Sensory skills - this is the process by which we receive information through senses for example vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch, proprioception ( this is the sense that tells people where the mobile parts of their body, such as the arms and legs, are in relation to the rest of the body.) Intellectual development *Cognitive - it's part of the brain that is used for recognising, reasoning, knowing and understanding. *Language- the development of communication skills include skills in receptive speech ( what the person understands), expressive speech ( words the person produces), articulation (person's actual pronunciation of words) Social/Emotional development *Emotional - the development of feelings, the growth of feeling about and the awareness of oneself, the development of feelings towards other people. The development of self esteem and self concept. *Social Skills - growth of the child's relationships with other people. Socialisation process of learning skills and attitudes that enable the child to live easily with other members of the community. Physical Growth Height The average length of a full term baby is about 50cm. This table shows the average height for boys and girls in inches. ...read more.

Middle

The third stage is Early Sentences and takes place from 2 years up to 4/5 years. There is a stage where they will have trouble with pronunciation and at 2 1/2 years will sometimes stutter while trying so hard to get words out. Telegraphic speech is also used and no plurals or past tense is used. A child will often make good use of language when playing with small toys. They know the difference between you, me and I. By 3 years a child can use up to 1000 words, their sentences are understandable however they still sounds childlike. They love to hear the favourite story over and over again and can hold a simple conversation with somebody. They can understand and can use words like you, me, I, him, her, she, he and plurals. Grammar is not totally correct and there is a stage called over generalising where they use the same rule over and over again such as putting "ed" on the end of everything for example " I likeded what I doned" . They also may over extend words such as calling every animal "doggie" They can recite numbers up to 10 but only able to count 3 objects. However, when they get to 4 they can count 4 or 5 objects, and can recite up to 20. They become very Very inquisitive, always asking questions such as 'what does that mean?' Grammar is now correct and they love to have a joke, children also Likes long stories now, also tells stories. Occasionally mistakes reality with imaginination. A 4 year old now talks in a more adult way and have about 1,500 words in their vocabulary. The forth stage is called Later speech which can happen 4 onwards. By the age of 5 a child can recite their name, address, birthday and age. Although they often confuse letters "F" and "S" with "TH" they become increasingly articulate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Parallel play happens when a baby is 14 - 18 months this is where two babies will play next to each other. They are now interested in each other and will smile, look at and make noises to each other. At 18 months you begin to see play that Is coordinated for example when they chase each other. By the age of 3 and 4 children now prefer to play with someone else, instead of being alone. They now play together and it is definitely coordinated. Consistent preference can be visible at this early age however it might not be true friendship and can be other reasons for example they share the same play interests. At around this age they begin to only be interested in playing with the same sex, this carries on into adolescence. At the age of 5 the definitely have their own best friend who they have chosen. At the ages of 7and 8 friends become more important and they spend a lot of time with them outside of school. Shared play interests still continue to form the basis of the friendships and at this age children define the play groups in terms of common activities and not in terms of common attitudes or values. Gradually they have a larger collection of friends, the friendships become more stable and last longer. Children are more polite to people that aren't their friends and who they don't know however are more supportive with friends, touch them, laugh with them. Also they are more critical towards their friends than non friends but when they fall out they really want to resolve the problem. Boys friendships are extensive whiles girls are intensive. Boy groups are a lot lager and are more accepting of newcomers, whereas girls are more likely to play in pairs or small groups and spend time playing indoors or near home, whereas boys play outdoors and over a larger area. ...read more.

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