• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Phylogenetic tree - in 1866, Ernst Haeckel introduced the phylogenetic tree, or the tree of life. Until now, the theory about the existence of tree of life is still strong in most people thought. But in fact, is this the phylogenetic tree really exist? If

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Universal phylogenetic tree In 1859, when Darwin published his most famous book: Origin of Life, it started the era of the theory of evolution. As we know, Darwinism proposes that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called NATURAL SELECTION. According to that theory, life developed from a single common ancestor and evolved gradually into a multitude of different species through the chain of small changes under the varying environment condition. That means the differences between species and the increasing complexity in the organism must occur in parallel over time. In short, life must be like a tree, with a common root and then split into many different branches. Thus, in 1866, Ernst Haeckel introduced the phylogenetic tree, or the tree of life. Until now, the theory about the existence of tree of life is still strong in most people thought. But in fact, is this the phylogenetic tree really exist? If not, is Darwin wrong? The key point for the theory of the tree of life is homology. ...read more.

Middle

Their tooth evolution was continuing. Approximately 40 - 24 million years ago, in the late Eocene and Oligocene, the species Mesohippus appears suddenly with the back was less arched, longer legs, the snout and face distinctively longer. Mesohippus had 3 toes on its hind and front feet and the 4th front toe was reduced to a vestigial nubbin and still had padded - footed. Soon after Mesohippus, a similar animal called Miohippus arose and their fossil record began to show a variable extra crest on its upper cheek teeth. Came to the Miocene, Miohippus began to split into 3 lines: small pygmy horses (not survive), 3-toed browsers called "anchitheres (they were very successful, spread into the Old World and thrived for tens of millions of years. They retained the small, simple teeth of Miohippus) and a line that changing their form to survive in the grassland which were just beginning to appear, open the era for grass - eater and also evolved the long legs for running in grassland. As the third line of Miohippus in the Miocene, the horse's tooth crown grew out of the gum and became harder to develop the cement layer. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the future, will we have one more Cambrian explosion? That is a very complex question for us from now. (1841 words) Reference list: Charles Darwin and Natural Selection, Minnesota State University Mankato. Available from: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/evolution/history/darwin.html Doolittle W.F. (2000), Uprooting the Tree of Life, Scientific American 282 (2), 90 - 95. Available from: http://people.ibest.uidaho.edu/~bree/courses/2_Doolittle_2000.pdf Gould Stephen J. (1994). The Evolution of Life on the Earth, Scientific American Available from: http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Gould_Evolution-of-Life.pdf Hunt, Kathleen (1995) Horse Evolution. Available from: http://www.godslasteraar.org/assets/ebooks/Hunt_Kathleen_Horse_Evolution.pdf Hsu, Karen; Kang, Myun; Lavarias, Amy & Prabaker, Kavitha (2000) The Cambrian Periods, University of California Museum of Paleontology, USA. Available from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html Levasseur Anthony; Pontarotti Pierre Pontarotti, Poch Olivier and Thompson Julie D.(2008) Strategies for Reliable Exploitation of Evolutionary Concepts in High Throughput Biology in Evolutionary Bioinformatics, France. Meyer, Stephen C., Nelson, P. A. and Chien Paul (2001) The Cambrian Explosion: Biology's Big Bang Wachman, Monica. What is Living fossil? Available from: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5799329_living-fossil_.html Woese C. (2000), Interpreting the universal phylogenetic tree, PNAS 97(15), 8392 - 8396. Available from: http://www.pnas.org.cgi.reprint/97/15/8392.pdf Zhou, Z. & Zheng, S (2003) The missing link in Gingko evolution, 423, England: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, MACMILLAN BUILDING, pp821 - 822. ?? ?? ?? ?? Name: Tran Ngoc Thuy Linh Foundation Certificate in Biomedical Sciences Foundation Certificate in Biomedical sciences Fin number: G0930004Q Bioinformatics essay Batch code: FUBDO 1015A Universal phylogenetic tree ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Revision notes - origins of life on Earth, chemistry of life

    5 star(s)

    life forms on earth are related � all living things evolved from one original type * Shows which types are more closely or distantly related. 8.4.2 The fossil record and evolution 8.4.2.1 Identify the major stages in the evolution of living things, including the formation of: - organic molecules -

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    observed, compared to the 21 at prophase, 7 at anaphase and 15 at Telophase). As it was previously explained in the hypothesis, this is due to the scale of mitotic events occurring; there is no synthesis of new cellular components, and the movement that occurs is due to the constrictive

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Epping Forest Coursework

    4 star(s)

    make the axis for the plot of land in the light and dark areas. It will also provide coordinates for both axis. Each area will be 15m by 15m. (225m2) Gridded quadrat 1 This will be used to show the coordinate at which point the height of bracken will be measured.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Loss of the Lemur: The Road to Extinction

    4 star(s)

    As one of the largest lemurs (they can grow up to 4m in length), they are poached for their coats and meat. Again however, it is the poverty in Madagascar that is the driving force behind much of this poaching.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Is there a relationship between the girth of a tree trunk and the percentage ...

    4 star(s)

    Locate a sycamore tree: find a distinctive marker tree and walk from each aspect from that tree. Trees that come into five meters either side of the path followed should be examined as they are arrived at. Sycamore trees have fairly large, five point leaves that have been known to

  2. Free essay

    Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: ...

    For example, the animals and plants of Asia and Australia are very different. Example - Waratahs: * Three genera of Waratahs, distribution spans southern Pacific Ocean. * The present day distribution of these closely related species in the eastern parts of Australia, and New Guinea and the Western part of

  1. Cloning - The assualt on the sanctity of life

    Embryo cloning This type of cloning involves duplicating the natural process that results in twins or triplets being formed. Cells are removed from a fertilized embryo and they are planted in other embryos and encouraged to develop, this procedure results in the formation of twins or triplets containing the exact same DNA.

  2. Investigating the colour variation of Littorina littoralis and their abundance across the upper, middle ...

    More colours may have briefly existed in the past, however they may have been undesirable towards its existence, for example being brightly coloured to attract predators. When the theory of natural selection is linked to the idea that the environmental conditions are varied along a rocky shore, it may be

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work