• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Physics Coursework, Visit to Holly House

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Edward Amoroso

Physics Coursework, Visit to Holly House Hospital, February 2005

We visited Holly House Hospital on 26th January 2005 to look at how physics is used in the medical profession, and how it is used in medical diagnosis. Whilst being shown around the separate radiology unit at the hospital, I noticed how Magnetic Resonance Imaging used different ways to look within patients, and helped specialists to try to diagnose and treat internal problems.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI was discovered in July 1977. French scientists discovered that using powerful electromagnetic fields and radio waves could produce images. The machine in which the patient is placed is very large. Most machines are so large that they completely fill up an entire room. The standard size of a scanner is 7 feet tall by 7 feet wide by 10 feet long, with a hole in the middle that is only just large enough to fit a patient inside. On top of this hole, and running through the whole scanner is a magnet, which is known as the ‘bore’. The patient enters the bore lying on his/her back on a special table, which has the ability to move in and out of the bore. Many patients find the examination very uncomfortable, as they have to lay still for about half an hour whilst the scan takes place.

...read more.

Middle

The entire MRI scanner installation is enclosed in a stainless steel or copper shield known as a Faraday cage which blocks out radio frequency signals from local radio and TV stations that might influence the MRI signals.

image03.jpg

How the pictures are taken

The human body is made up of billions of different atoms. The nuclei of these atoms spin around randomly, and the main atom that MRI focuses on is the hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atom is ideal because its nucleus has a single proton and it has a very large magnetic moment. The large moment means that when placed in a magnetic field, the hydrogen atom has a strong tendency to line up with the direction of the field. As the magnet runs along the scanner in the same direction as the body, the magnetic field therefore does the same. The atoms will line up in the direction of either the feet or the head. Many of the atoms cancel out, but as there are so many billions, there are still enough to produce astounding images.

image04.png

Radio Waves

The MRI machine then applies a radio frequency to the body that is specific only to hydrogen. These waves are directed at the part of the body that is needed to be examined.

...read more.

Conclusion

image10.png

A small head scanner.

image02.jpg

The patient is receiving treatment on his left knee. This is a new type of scanner that is significantly smaller, and therefore has more advantages.

Conclusion

The almost limitless benefits of MRI for most patients far outweigh the few drawbacks. MRI scanning has revolutionised medical imaging, and has helped to treat many patients who could not be treated in any other way. MRI uses physics techniques that have been identified above to overcome problems where CAT scanners could not do so as well. It is an extremely safe method of imaging, and the technology is rapidly advancing, which will only make this method better.

Bibliography

www.ortho-md.com

www.nasa.gov

www.cis.rit.edu

Holly House Hospital MRI Consent Form

www.williamoslerhc.on.ca

neurocog.psy.tufts.edu

www.cksociety.org

hypertextbook.com/facts

www.tech.nite.go.jp

‘Economics of the NHS’ BBC2 7th February

‘Medical Physics’ by Martin Hollins, pages 186 - 187

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Fields & Forces section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Fields & Forces essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Investigating the forces acting on a trolley on a ramp

    5 star(s)

    = 6.6�; g = 8.416ms-2 � 43.56% = 8.416 ms-2 � 3.666 When O = 3.3�; g = 11.346ms-2 � 43.56% = 11.346 ms-2 � 4.942 While these percentage errors seem rather high, these are maximum values. It is more likely that some measurements will have been under-measured and others

  2. Peer reviewed

    Energy and its uses

    3 star(s)

    1 Kj is equal to 1000 joules. Energy Interconversions 1. Electric motor drives pulley on line shaft to raise mass: A power supply unit (PSU) was used to supply electrical energy to a motor which converts the electrical energy to kinetic energy after some energy loss through electrical resistance and heat, the kinetic energy is then converted

  1. Investigation to determine the viscosity of glycerol.

    * Weighing Scales - is used to measure the mass of the ball and help in determining the density of glycerol. * Meter Rule - is used to measure the distance between the two marked points on the measuring cylinder. This is used to calculate the velocity of the ball.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    (Spin is an inherently quantum property. In the context of this document, it refers to the turning motion of a proton). Hydrogen nuclei also possess a magnetic moment M (a magnetic field created by the moving positively charged protons) that has its origins in circulating currents.

  1. Maglev Trains And The Technology Behind Them (magnetism)

    They come in two types the Long-stator propulsion using an electrically powered linear motor winding in the guideway appears to be the favoured option for high-speed maglev systems. Short-stator propulsion uses a linear induction motor (LIM) winding onboard and a passive guideway.

  2. Quality of Measurement - Physics AS

    is very little risk to this experiment as nothing is potentially a real danger for the user. The only main problem is the miss use of electrical equipment but as the voltage being used is quite minimal there's very little chance of any sort of serious injury.

  1. Rules, Regulations and Scoring Systems of boxing.

    Within each penalty area a penalty mark is made 11 m from the midpoint between the goalposts. An arc of a circle with a radius of 9.15 m from each penalty mark is drawn outside the penalty area. Flagposts A flagpost not less than 1.5 m high, without a pointed top and a flag is placed at each corner.

  2. What Affects the Strength of Magnetism Exerted By an Electromagnet?

    * Crocodile clips attach to the coil of wire and attach to DC output terminals of the converter to ensure a good contact. * The converter is plugged into a mains socket and switched on with the output set to 0 Amps.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work