• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Physics Coursework, Visit to Holly House

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Edward Amoroso

Physics Coursework, Visit to Holly House Hospital, February 2005

We visited Holly House Hospital on 26th January 2005 to look at how physics is used in the medical profession, and how it is used in medical diagnosis. Whilst being shown around the separate radiology unit at the hospital, I noticed how Magnetic Resonance Imaging used different ways to look within patients, and helped specialists to try to diagnose and treat internal problems.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI was discovered in July 1977. French scientists discovered that using powerful electromagnetic fields and radio waves could produce images. The machine in which the patient is placed is very large. Most machines are so large that they completely fill up an entire room. The standard size of a scanner is 7 feet tall by 7 feet wide by 10 feet long, with a hole in the middle that is only just large enough to fit a patient inside. On top of this hole, and running through the whole scanner is a magnet, which is known as the ‘bore’. The patient enters the bore lying on his/her back on a special table, which has the ability to move in and out of the bore. Many patients find the examination very uncomfortable, as they have to lay still for about half an hour whilst the scan takes place.

...read more.

Middle

The entire MRI scanner installation is enclosed in a stainless steel or copper shield known as a Faraday cage which blocks out radio frequency signals from local radio and TV stations that might influence the MRI signals.

image03.jpg

How the pictures are taken

The human body is made up of billions of different atoms. The nuclei of these atoms spin around randomly, and the main atom that MRI focuses on is the hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atom is ideal because its nucleus has a single proton and it has a very large magnetic moment. The large moment means that when placed in a magnetic field, the hydrogen atom has a strong tendency to line up with the direction of the field. As the magnet runs along the scanner in the same direction as the body, the magnetic field therefore does the same. The atoms will line up in the direction of either the feet or the head. Many of the atoms cancel out, but as there are so many billions, there are still enough to produce astounding images.

image04.png

Radio Waves

The MRI machine then applies a radio frequency to the body that is specific only to hydrogen. These waves are directed at the part of the body that is needed to be examined.

...read more.

Conclusion

image10.png

A small head scanner.

image02.jpg

The patient is receiving treatment on his left knee. This is a new type of scanner that is significantly smaller, and therefore has more advantages.

Conclusion

The almost limitless benefits of MRI for most patients far outweigh the few drawbacks. MRI scanning has revolutionised medical imaging, and has helped to treat many patients who could not be treated in any other way. MRI uses physics techniques that have been identified above to overcome problems where CAT scanners could not do so as well. It is an extremely safe method of imaging, and the technology is rapidly advancing, which will only make this method better.

Bibliography

www.ortho-md.com

www.nasa.gov

www.cis.rit.edu

Holly House Hospital MRI Consent Form

www.williamoslerhc.on.ca

neurocog.psy.tufts.edu

www.cksociety.org

hypertextbook.com/facts

www.tech.nite.go.jp

‘Economics of the NHS’ BBC2 7th February

‘Medical Physics’ by Martin Hollins, pages 186 - 187

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Fields & Forces section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Fields & Forces essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Energy and its uses

    3 star(s)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Several_mobile_phones.png 8. Nuclear energy is energy released from nuclear reactions such as the energy caused by nuclear fusion reactions in the sun. http://www.oxfordreference.com/pages/VED_samples 9. The standard unit of energy is the Joule (j) or Kilojoules (Kj). 1 Kj is equal to 1000 joules.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    (Spin is an inherently quantum property. In the context of this document, it refers to the turning motion of a proton). Hydrogen nuclei also possess a magnetic moment M (a magnetic field created by the moving positively charged protons) that has its origins in circulating currents.

  1. Investigation to determine the viscosity of glycerol.

    Buoyancy: "The upthrust is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. "8 Viscous force: "Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction."9 Upthrust and viscosity balances the weight of the sphere and when this happens the object is said to have reached terminal velocity.

  2. Maglev Trains And The Technology Behind Them (magnetism)

    They come in two types the Long-stator propulsion using an electrically powered linear motor winding in the guideway appears to be the favoured option for high-speed maglev systems. Short-stator propulsion uses a linear induction motor (LIM) winding onboard and a passive guideway.

  1. Quality of Measurement - Physics AS

    +/- 0.1cm Average +/- 0.0005s 1/2t� 100cm 0.442 s 0.0975 90cm 0.421 s 0.0885 80cm 0.390 s 0.0760 70cm 0.360 s 0.0640 60cm 0.336 s 0.0564 50cm 0.310 s 0.0480 40cm 0.276 s 0.0380 30cm 0.231 s 0.0267 20cm 0.192 s 0.0184 10cm 0.135 s 0.0091 Safety: I believe there

  2. Rules, Regulations and Scoring Systems of boxing.

    The Corner Arc A quarter circle with a radius of 1 m from each corner flagpost is drawn inside the field of play. Goals Goals consist of two upright posts equidistant from the corner flagposts and joined at the top by a horizontal crossbar.

  1. What Affects the Strength of Magnetism Exerted By an Electromagnet?

    times and averaged to ensure a suitable level of accuracy for the readings. Overview As explained earlier, I believe that the strength of an electromagnet varies according to the total voltage causing magnetic induction on the Soft Iron Core within a set time period.

  2. EMF Investigation - electricity and magnetic fields.

    * Read the voltage reading on the oscilloscope. * Record the results. * Repeat the experiment necessarily, varying the factors as needed. Safety precaution * Dealing with electricity is dangerous. Take attentive cautions. * The horseshoe metal, when the power is passed onto them, could be dangerous as they rush into each other.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work