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Use of technology in a hospital radiology department. The department of imaging is one of the best equipped in the UK and provides a very full range of diagnostic and interventional services which include: X ray, Computer Tomography(CT), Magnetic Resonanc

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

 IVA LEARNER INSTRUCTIONS

TASK 1 A

University College London Hospital (UCLH) is a teaching hospital in London, part of the University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. It was founded in 1834, eight years after UCL (then known as the University College London as the North London Hospital in order to provide clinical training for the medical doctors.

UCLH was officially opened in October 2005. It is the biggest and most ambitious hospital building project in the history of the NHS. UCLH provides many services. This includes: Accident and Emergency, clinic for cardiology outpatients, cancer care, critical care, endocrinology, general surgery, Ophthalmology, Dermatology, General medicine, Gynaecology, Rheumatology, Orthopaedics, Paediatrics and Urology. [ 1]

 This project mainly focuses on what they offer in the radiology department. The department of imaging is one of the best equipped in the UK and provides a very full range of diagnostic and interventional services which include: X ray, Computer Tomography(CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI),Ultrasound (US), Intervention radiology, Fluoroscopy and plain film X ray.

 UCLH provides a comprehensive clinical service, offering a full range of procedures to both the trust and other hospitals throughout the UK. 12,000 patient studies are performed per year, using the UK’s first Positron Emission Tomography (PET), computerised tomography (CT) scanner, SPET/CT, five further SPET gamma cameras, and a bone densitometry scanner. The department also performs a range of routine tests and radionuclide therapy procedures on in-patients and out-patients using new superb facilities. The latest imaging technology is available in the department, some of which is exclusive to the UK.[ 2]

The below picture show us how the CT scan looks and how it works.

image00.jpg

Figure 1 CT scan[ 3]

...read more.

Middle

Measuring Ruler

image11.jpg

Source holder

Method

  • To start the investigation, first set up the equipment on the front bench, where every student can see.  
  • Then open the Geiger counter for ten minute to see the background radiation. A Geiger counter is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation.
  • Record the background radiation for one minute
  • After recording the background radiation, take out gamma ray from strong wood container, for safety reason hand has to be 10 centimetre away from the source to avoid radiation getting to your body, and drag the radiation source in front of the Geiger counter and record the figure. This has to be done with out using absorber. Which are aluminium, paper and lead.
  •  Place the gamma ray in to the box and put 30 cm aluminium between the counter and radiation source using stand. This time the figure has to be less from the first one because of aluminium absorber.
  • And then using the 30 cm lead between the source and the counter record the result, this time the figure has to be more less. Using the same method but different absorber the same investigation done for alpha and beta to measure the thickens of the radiation.

M2

The scientific principle of the above investigation is to know how radiation can be absorbed by different substances and penetrating properties. For example alpha radiation travels only a few centimetres in air, beta radiation travels tens of centimetres in air and gamma radiation travels many meters. All types of radiation become less intense the further the distance from the radioactive material, as the particles or rays become more spread out.

The ticker the substance the more the radiation is absorbed, therefore the above three types of radiation penetrate materials in deferent ways.

Alpha radiation

  • Alpha radiation is the least penetrating. It can be stopped ( or absorbed) by just a sheet of paper

Beta radiation

  • Beta radiation can penetrate air and paper. It can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminium

Gamma radiation

  • Gamma radiation is the most penetrating. Even small levels can penetrate air. Paper or thin metal. High level can only be stopped by many centimetre of lead or many metres of concrete. [ 11 ]

The below picture shows us how this radioactive source absorb by different martial  

image12.png

Figure 4              [12]

 The degree to which each different type of radiation is most dangerous to the body depend on whether the source is outside or inside the body. If the radioactive source is inside the body maybe after being swallowed or breathed it could be dangerous. For instance alpha radiation is the most dangerous because it is easily absorbed by cells, whereas beta and gamma radiation are not as dangerous because they are less likely to be absorbed by a cell and just pass through it.

(2) The below table shows the result obtained from the investigation

Gamma source

Absorber

Thickness of absorber

Counted per minute

With out absorber  

No

450

Aluminium

30 mm

165

Led

30 mm

150

Alpha source

Absorber

Thickness of absorber

Counted per minute

With out absorber

No

240

Paper

2mm

146

Lead

30mm

3

Beta particle

Absorber

Thickness of absorber

Counted per minute

With out absorber

No

5000

Aluminium

0.3mm

1832

Aluminium

1mm

760

Aluminium

1.6mm

12

...read more.

Conclusion

[27]

Task 6 (A)

The laboratory information management system software package used in UCLH is PAS( patient administration system) [28]

Task 6 (B)

PAS is LIMS software package that is used within the all radiology department and the whole hospital, running on a PC with the windows NT, 2000,XP or server 2003 operating systems. It is the software that provides the capability for users to easily integrate process application software for laboratory analysis, resource planning, statistical control and more. Every patient that treated in UCLH hospital is on the PAS system and their details are updated every time they visit. PAS is very suitable software because it logs all the relevant information and is easily accessible whenever it is required by a number of staff at the hospital.

In addition PAS is also very flexible software which has capability of supporting two types of application OPC clients and CHIP application. The size and speed PAS provides throughout the hospital a full 10,000 point database and the [29]

Reference:

12. Family tree

http://www.uclh.nhs.uk/About+UCLH/Board+of+directors/

13. Function of each department

http://www.uclh.nhs.uk/Our+services/

14. http://www.uclh.nhs.uk/GPs+healthcare+professionals/Clinical+services/Imaging

15. UCLH annual report 2006/2007

16. http://www.uclh.nhs.uk/search?text=employee%20protection

17. http://www.hse.gov.uk/

18. http://www.hse.gov.uk/

19. http://www.uclh.nhs.uk/search?text=quality%20system

20. http://www.lehigh.edu/~kaf3/sops/sop2.html

21. http://www.healthandsafety.co.uk/haswa.htm

22. http://www.lehigh.edu/~kaf3/sops/sop2.html

23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_management_system

24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_management_system

25. http://www.lehigh.edu/~kaf3/sops/sop2.html

26. http://www.uclh.nhs.uk/search?text=software%20package

27. http://www.easydeltav.com/pd/PDS_PVX_App_Srvr.pdf

28. http://www.uclh.nhs.uk/About+UCLH/

29. http://www.easydeltav.com/pd/PDS_PVX_App_Srvr.pdf

...read more.

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