• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Planning an investigation to determine the reactivity of HalogenoAlkanes

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning an investigation to determine the reactivity of HalogenoAlkanes In this plan, I will devise an experiment that will enable me to determine which of 3 halogenoalkanes is the most reactive. A halogenoalkane is a halogen containing alkane; in this investigation I shall be using 1-bromobutane, 1-chlorobutane and 1-iodobutane and an aqueous solution of Silver Nitrate to test the reactivity of each. Examining bond polarity, halogens are more electronegative than carbon; a polar bond will form, where the halogen as delta negative in charge. The order of polarity is Cl>Br>I, with Chlorine has the highest electronegativity and thus forms the most polar bond with Carbon of the three. Similarly, Iodine has the lowest and forms the least polar bond. As the polarity of the bond increases, the repulsion of opposite charges increases, so this would suggest that a C-Cl bond would result in the highest polarity and repulsion, requiring the least energy to be applied to be broken of the three C-Hal bonds. Therefore, of the three halogenoalkanes, that containing Chlorine should be the most reactive. ...read more.

Middle

It is this precipitate, and the time taken for it to form, that I will use to measure the reactivity when hydrolysing the different halogenoalkanes. The colour of the precipitate that forms depends on the halide reacting: * Silver Chloride forms white precipitate * Silver Bromide forms cream precipitate * Silver Iodide forms yellow precipitate. Ref 2 The equations for the reactions that will take place are identical, excluding a change in halogen, of course, are as follows for Bromine: CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + HO CH2CH2CH2CH2OH + H+ + Br- (HBr) Ag+ (aq) + Br- (aq) AgBr (s) By simply replacing "Br" with either 'Cl' or 'I', the equation remains the same. Drawn beneath the first equation is the mechanism of the nucleophilic substitution that occurs. Halogenoalkane properties Because halogenoalkanes are typically volatile liquids that do not mix with water, I shall be using a cosolvent that will dissolve both, ethanol. The ethanolic Silver Nitrate will allow the halogenoalkane to react with the water, and the halide ion to leave. It is it then able to bond with free Silver ions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Method 1. Measure out 1 cm3 of ethanol and Silver Nitrate solution into a test tube, and mark a cross on the opposite side. Place in a beaker of water allow to reach the temperature of 45�C. 2. Start a timer when adding one drop of 1-chlorobutane. 3. Record the time taken for a precipitate to form and obscure the cross marked on the other side. 4. Repeat twice. 5. Repeat steps 1-4 for both 1-bromobutane and 1-iodobutane. By having each halide reacting three times, I can derive an average time taken for the cross to obscured. The faster it occurs, the more reactive it is. I can then deduce which of the three is the most reactive. Whilst doing the experiment, it is vital to beware of the safety precautions. Silver Nitrate is corrosive and causes burns and can form explosive silver fulminates with ethanol. Goggles should be warn to prevent damage to eyes, and care when handling to prevent any contact with skin. The halogenoalkanes are all highly flammable, but 1-bromo and 1-iodobutane are irritants to the eyes and skin, and can cause the respiratory system harm, so all reactions should take place in a well ventilated fume cupboard. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Inorganic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Inorganic Chemistry essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Deducing the quantity of acid in a solution

    5 star(s)

    the colour of the solution was firstly different and also because the two compound would react at a different point. What does this mean? This means that at the time that we reach the endpoint and read the graduation mark in the burette, the mark read and, therefore, the results

  2. effects Concentration and Temperature on the Rate of Reaction

    Ingestion Corrosive. Abdominal pain. Convulsions. Diarrhoea. Shock or collapse. Sore throat. Smoky, greenish-dark urine. Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Wash hands before eating. Rinse mouth. Give plenty of water to drink. Do not induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention. Spillage n/a n/a Sweep spilled substance into sealable containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting.

  1. Bleaching experiment. Estimation of available chlorine in commercial bleaching solution.

    Thus, it would contribute to errors if the thiosulphate solution was not properly kept. As the thiosulphate solution is not the primary standard, the solution should be standardized beforehand or it would make other possible errors. The Na2S2O3(aq) can be prepared by dissolving Na2S2O3?5H2O crystals in recently boiled distilled water

  2. Lab report Determination of Enthalpy Change of Neutralization

    However, nitric acid used in the experiment is very diluted and it is slightly less strong than hydrochloric acid. Therefore, the enthalpy change of neutralization of nitric acid is relatively lower than that of hydrochloric acid. Q10: Both accepted values of the first two reactions are greater than that of

  1. Aim: To determine the activation energy of the reaction between bromide ion and bromate(V) ...

    out how far the reaction has proceeded by the number of mole. 6. The Arrhenius equation is can be represented as: . Derive an equation to relate ln k and 1/T. ln k = ln A ln k = + ln A 7.

  2. Extraction of Chlorine

    This increases the acidity of the soil, and affect the chemical balance of lakes and streams. [5] NO emissions in the lower atmosphere are eventually oxidised to NO2: 2NO + O2 --> 2NO2 NO + O3 --> NO2 + O2 The NO2 can then react with OH radicals from water to form nitric acid (HNO3)

  1. Oxidation of ethanol

    * Sodium dichromate - The substance is corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The substance burns skin, and produces eye redness, blurred vision, sore throat, cough, wheezing. For personal protection, I decided to wear protective gloves, protective clothing and safety goggles.

  2. The Effects of Strong and Weak Acids on the Order of a Reaction.

    Add the correct amount of acid to the boiling tube and place in a water bath under the syringe, ready for the experiment to begin. 5) Drop the Magnesium Ribbon carefully into the Acid and start the stop-clock as soon as the Ribbon hits the acid.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work