• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Planning Coursework - Investigation of rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes

Extracts from this document...


Investigation of rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes By Fiona Li L6LB Introduction In this experiment, it is intended to investigate the relationship between different types of halogenoalkanes and their rate of hydrolysis. Three different types of halogenoalkanes will be used in this experiment. They are 1-chlorobutane, 1-bromobutane and 1-iodobutane. Outline of the experiment The experiment will be done by using different types of halogenoalkanes, with a suitable volume of ethanol added in each test tube. Placing the test tubes into the water bath and stand for few minutes to ensure the temperature of the solution mixture remains constant for a fair test. Silver nitrate is added into the mixture and shakes afterwards. The mixture will then undergo hydrolysis following this equation: RH (l) + H2O (l) --> ROH (l) + H+ + X- N.B The water molecules come from the aqueous silver nitrate solution At the same time, the stopwatch will be press started to record the time needed for the formation of silver halides (which is a precipitate formed by the silver ions in silver nitrate solution with the X-, which is a halide ion produced by the hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes). The time needed for the completion of the precipitate formation will be recorded and the data obtained will be analyzed to give an appropriate conclusion. Observation and measurements going to be seen and recorded When silver ions react with halide ions, a coloured precipitate will form, which is insoluble in water. ...read more.


As halogenoalkanes and silver nitrate cannot be dissolved in water, forming layers of solution, ethanol is used as a common solvent such that both solute can be dissolved for reaction to happen. However, if the amount of ethanol used in the experiment is not the same, for example, less ethanol is used for a particular test tube some of the halogenoalkanes may not be dissolved. Apparatus The apparatus used in this experiment will be as follows: Test tubes x 5 Test tube rack x 1 Graduate pipette x 5 Large beaker x 1 Thermometer x 1 Stopwatch x 1 N.B graduate pipette is used as it has measuring interval such that the volume of the solution can be accurately measured. The graduated pipette is having a volume of 2cm3 and with 0.2cm3 interval such that to give an accurate measurement of the volume of solution used. Safety precautions As the halogenoalkanes is a highly volatile substances which is flammable and is toxic when in contact with skin, the following safety precautions have to be taken to prevent serious damage: 1) To ensure there is not Bunsen burner placing near the halogenoalkanes as they are highly flammable, if they are spilled onto the naked flame, it may cause fire. It is also needed to be aware that when discarding the halogenoalkanes solution, it should be done in the fume cupboard to carry away any harmful and toxic gas. ...read more.


3) In a separate test tube, place in 10cm3 of silver nitrate solution. 4) In the beaker, add in suitable volume of water which able to cover the mixture in the test tube. Place in all the test tube, wait for 10 minutes, this is to allow the temperature of the solution to be equilibrium (i.e the mixture in the 4 test tubes are having the same temperature). Measure the temperature in the water bath using a thermometer. Place a black colour paper at the back of the test tubes. 5) Add in 2cm3 of silver nitrate, shake using inversion method to ensure the silver ions are even disturbed over the solution. At the same, start to the stopwatch. 6) Stop the stopwatch once the solution changes from colourless to cloudiness and the black colour of the paper cannot be seen. This indicates the end point of the reaction. Record the time needed for the complete hydrolysis process. 7) The experiment may have to be repeated for 2 more times to eliminate any potential errors and to obtain a average result for accurate analysis. Analysis of results After obtaining sufficient results from the experiment, an average time taken for the hydrolysis process for each halogenoalkanes will be calculated. A table will be drawn to show the results for comparison. The shorter the time needed for the precipitate formation, the faster the rate of hydrolysis that particular halogenoalkane has. The table can also be used to show the rate of hydrolysis for each type of halogenoalken by using the equation of rate = 1 / time. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. F336- aspirin individual Investigation

    ammonium sulphate solution before adjusting the volume to 100 cm3. The light absorption is best measured around 530 nm with the whole process repeated using different amounts of salicylic acid to construct a calibration curve. Methods for making aspirin Method 1: This method involves using salicylic acid, pyridine, acetic anhydride,

  2. Compare the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols

    Analysis of Results From the graph, I can see that most of my results follow the same trend. The only alcohol that produced varying results in the repeats was Pentan-1ol. This was mainly due to the differing temperature changes and the number of bonds that needed to be broken.

  1. the analysis of aspirin tablet

    Data of results Titration table of sodium hydroxide with standard 0.08572M sulphuric acid Trial 1st titration 2nd titration 3rd titration Initial reading on the burette 7.0 cm3 7.9 cm3 10.8 cm3 3.8 cm3 Final reading on the burette 22.0 cm3 22.7 cm3 25.6 cm3 18.6 cm3 Volume

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    The acidity of the oxides decrease down each group. -- As we move from left to right of a period, the basicity decreases until an amphoteric oxide is reached. Then the oxide show incraesing acidity along the period to group VII.

  1. The Preparation of 1-bromobutane

    Reflux condenser 13. Guard tube containing soda lime 14. Small Bunsen or electric heating mantle Risk Assessment Chemical Hazard Corrective plan Butan-1-ol Harmful/flammable - avoid contact with skin - wear lab coat - if spilled clean up area with cold water - keep far away from Bunsen flame - wear eye protection.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to obtain the rate equation for the reaction ...

    11. For the first experiment (experiment a), volume of iodine solution, HCl and water were measured into a boiling tube according to the table below. 12. Volume of propanone was measured out to a test tube according to the table below.

  1. investigating the amount of ascorbic acid present in fruit

    (g): 4.00 Table of Initial and Final Mass of Solid Acetic Acid Weighed: Here is a table showing the initial and final mass of the solid acetic acid that was weighed. This mass was used to make the 10% acetic acid.

  2. Aim: To determine how the concentration of each species in a reaction affects the ...

    respect to the concentration of each species is known, then substituting concentrations into the rate equation should produce the same rate of reaction that was earlier calculated using the Concentration - Time graph. Other methods 1) Using the Half-life values A Concentration - Time graph has to be plotted for each experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work