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# Power generation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Analysis at work:
Producing Electricity

Introduction:

Oil is a liquid fossil fuel and is formed from layers and layers of buried animals and plants that have been under a lot of heat and pressure over a long time. Oil is a non-renewable resource as it cannot be produced on human time frame.

Oil is used for many things; it’s used for transportation, heating purposes, fuel for electricity generating plants. Fuel is found underground reservoirs.

The production of electricity from oil begins with the extraction of oil and ends with the oil burning in boilers and turbines at power plants. Crude oil is removed from the ground by drilling deep wells and pumping it up to the surface.

The crude oil is then moved to a refinery (refineries remove a portion of the impurities in the oil, e.g. metals) where it is refined into a number of fuel products: kerosene, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas
(propane).

Then this crude oil is moved to power plants by trains, trucks, pipelines or ship. Many methods are used at the power plants to generate electricity from oil. One of the methods is to produce steam by burning the oil in the boilers which is used by a steam turbine to generate electricity.

Middle

#### Calculations:

The input of fuel provides energy. The fuel is burnt so therefore producing electricity.

P1= output of boiler, input of turbine

P2=Output of turbine, input of generator

I have done the calculation below to work out the output of the boiler and the input of the generator, overall P2 is the power generation of the turbines. Power generation from P2 is used as the input in working out the efficiency of the generator. The power generation that the generator gives out is known simply as output.

P2= Output

%      x 100

P2= 2400

90.09 x100

P2=2664(2dp) mw

The calculation above shows the working out for the power generation of the turbines.

P1=       P2

70x 100

P1=2664

1. x 100

P1=3805.71(2dp) mw

Input=     P1

60   x 100

Input= 3805.71

60         x 100

Input= 6342.85 mw

I have worked out all the above to calculate the overall efficiency of the oil power station.

Overall efficiency (%)=    output

Input x 100

Overall efficiency= 63.06% (2dp)

Boiler:

#### This is a picture of a boiler; this is where the fuel is burnt to boil the water. The water that is purified is pumped through a pipe into the boiler. An average size of the boiler is approximately 130 ft in height and 50 ft in width.

Conclusion

The image above is of a turbine.

Complex calculation:

#### Total output of 1 wind turbine:

Volume      =      Depth      x      Surface area

6m/s    x              x?

Surface area = Лr2 (3.14 x 102) = 314

Volume = 6m/s x 314

Volume = 1884 m/s

Calculation for mass of blade:

m=mass

e=density

v=volume

m= e x v

m= 1.4 x 1884

mass of blade= 2637.6 kg

Calculation for kinetic energy:

Ke=kinetic energy

m=mass

v=velocity

Ke= ½ mv2

Ke= 0.5 x 2637.6 x 62

Kinetic energy= 47476.8 joules

Bibliography:

http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/oil.htm

http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/glossary.htm#fossil

http://www.npp.hu/mukodes/kepek/navegre-e.jpg

http://www.canren.gc.ca/tech_appl/index.asp?CaId=6&PgId=232

http://www3.iptv.org/exploremore/energy/profiles/fossil_fuels.cfm

http://www.lenntech.com/images/Boiler%20FE%20images/boiler-schema.jpg

http://www.boost-energy.com/UserFiles/Image/ampair/UW%20100%20parts%20diagram.gif

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Electrical & Thermal Physics section.

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## Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

### Response to the question

The candidate starts this essay by describing oil, though they do so well, the purpose of the essay is not clear. When writing an introduction you need to state the topic that you will be writing about so that the ...

### Response to the question

The candidate starts this essay by describing oil, though they do so well, the purpose of the essay is not clear. When writing an introduction you need to state the topic that you will be writing about so that the premise of your essay is clear. You should also try to engage the reader, you can do this by providing historical background or by stating a relevant fact or quote that you find interesting. That said, the candidate gives a very explicit response overall, they have included a great deal of information and they have taken the time to put together a table and a flow chart, these can be useful tools for make the information more interesting to read.

### Level of analysis

It is clear from the level of detail provided that the candidate has taken the time to research this topic, which is always a good idea. Its shows interest and enthusiasm in you subject and makes your essay more enjoyable to read. In addition to this the candidate has also included a bibliography, which I recommend, it is important to provide links to any web pages you have used, it prevents you being accused of plagiarism and it shows the preparation you have undergone in order to write your essay. Furthermore the candidate has accurately shown the necessary calculations in order to work power and efficiency, this shows a good understanding of the mathematics involved in physics principles. Finally the candidate gives a reasonable evaluation, they have provide a personal response which helps bring your work to a close. However you should end your essay by summarising your key points as this helps bring together any lose ends. In addition to this the candidates essay ends with calculations, it would more appropriate to end with a brief sentence explaining how this backs up your point.

### Quality of writing

This piece of work is well written, the candidate provides accurate information relating to the topic and they have used suitable scientific terms. In addition to this the information is carefully laid out and is essay is easy to follow, furthermore there are no issues with spelling or grammar.

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