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Practical on Enthalpy changes between acids and bases.

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Introduction

Practical on Enthalpy changes between acids and bases Introduction All life on earth depends on the transfers of energy in chemical reactions. So that measurements can be made when energy is transferred during chemical reactions, that have to be carried out under controlled conditions. A special name is given to process where energy is transferred and exchanged with the surroundings, when taking place under constants pressure. The special name given to this type of process is Enthalpy. When chemical reactions take place they release energy to the surroundings. There are also special names given to these kind of energy transfers. They are called exothermic and endothermic reactions. Out of these two types exothermic reactions are most easily detected. This is because in exothermic reactions energy is realised to the surroundings and is detected by temperature rise. But some chemical reactions only occur when energy is put into them from an external source. ...read more.

Middle

Health and Saftey During this practical a white lab coat should be worn and safety glasses du the use of acids could be dangerous. Method Refer to sheet given by lecturer Results Strengths Solutions pH of solutions A2 1M Hydrochloric acid 0.68 A1 1M Sulphuric acid 0.32 A3 1M Ethanoic acid 2.42 B1 1M Sodium hydroxide 13.38 B3 1M Sodium hydrogen carbonate 8.42 B2 1M Ammonia 11.39 Key A1 = Strongest acid A3 = Weakest acid B1 = Strongest base B3 = weakest base Acid Base T1 (Temp ?C) T2 (Temp ?C) Temp change (?C) ? H = mc ?T HCl with NaOH 23 30 - 7 -1170.4 2NaHCO3 23 28 - 5 -836 NH3 23 29 - 6 -1003.2 H2SO4 NaOH 22 27 - 5 -836 2NaHCO3 22 23 - 1 -167.2 NH3 22 25 - 3 -501.6 CH3CH2OH NaOH 21 27 - 6 -1003.2 2NaHCO3 21 20 + 1 167.2 NH3 21 25 - 4 -668.8 Conclusion After successfully completing my experiment I have concluded a number of things. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also I made sure that we used the same digital pH meter and that it was washed everytime after use to remove all impurities so contamination would not occur. Another important aspect was to make sure that the experiment was carried out in the same conditions because if for example the temperature changed this could have affected our practical and results. If I was to conduct this experiment again I would make a number of changes. Firstley one point in the practical which I thought caused chance of error was when reading the meniscus line on the cylinder it was very hard to get this exactly right. A better and more accurate way would have been if we used an pipette it would have made it more accurate. I think another aspect which could cause error was the thermometer which could have used a digital one. And also finally there could have been another area in which error could have been caused is the pH meter this if not cleaned properly could infected my other solutions. ...read more.

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