• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Preparation of Standard solution and Standardization of Hydrochloric acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Experiment 1 Preparation of Standard solution and Standardization of Hydrochloric acid Date: 13-09-2010 Objective The objective of carrying out this experiment is to determine the concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) by using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as the primary standard in volumetric analysis. Procedure 1. All the apparatus are thoroughly washed by de-ionized water before the experiment. 2. About 1.3 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was accurately weighted out using the method of "weighing by difference". 3. The weighed carbonate was transferred to a beaker and about 100 cm3 of de-ionized water added to dissolve it with stirring of glass rod. 4. After dissolving, the solution was transferred to a 250.00 cm3 volumetric flask. 5. The solution was then made up the mark on the neck by adding de-ionized water (add last few drops with dropper.) 6. Pipette and burette are rinsed by the solution to be contained respectively. 7. 25.00 cm3 of sodium carbonate solution was transferred to a clean conical flask using pipette and pipette filler. 8. Two drops of methyl orange indicator were then added to the sodium carbonate solution. 9. 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid are added in to the empty burette. 10. The filled burette is checked without any air bubbles at the jet. ...read more.

Middle

=0.161717143 ~0.162M ?The molarity of given hydrochloric acid is 0.162M 3. Is it necessary to rinse the pipette with the standard sodium carbonate? Explain. Before titration, pipette should be washed with distilled or de-ionized water and then with the solution to be contained (Na2CO3 (aq)). After washing with distilled or de-ionized water ,there maybe water or impurities remained in the pipette. Any water or impurities remained inside the pipette , will dilute the standard sodium carbonate to be contained. In other words , the number of mole of Na2CO3 will be lowered and the Na2CO3 (aq) will be no longer standard. Thus, the molarity of the given HCL(aq) calculated will be inaccurate due to the titration with contaminated Na2CO3(aq). Therefore, pipette should also be rinsed by standard sodium carbonate before transferring the solution during the actual titration. By doing this step, impurities and water remained can be washed away and the number of mole of Na2CO3 in the pipette will be in accordance with the calculated data. 4. Suggest one more method other than using acid-base indicator to detect the end-point of an acid-alkali titration. Data logger with temperature sensor can also be used to detect the end-point of an acid-alkali titration. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although the end point is reasonably close to the equivalence point , there is still minor difference in volume. Thus, the volume of HCL(aq) added is not exactly the actual volume required for completely neutralizing Na2CO3 (aq). Last but not least, solution may be last due to too vigorous swirl . This can end in liquid splashing from the conical flask before the end point had been reached. Conclusion To conclude, the molarity of the given hydrochloric acid is tested and calculated to be 0.162M. Throughout the titration, it should be noted that chemists should find a correct and suitable chemicals to make primary standard solution. Moreover, it is necessary to rinse the pipette with the solution to be contained or transferred. Furthermore, chemists can use other methods ,such as using data logger with temperature sensor ,to detect the end-point of acid-alkali titration. Furthermore, chemists should aware of the potential errors may be made, in order to decide appropriate measures to reduce the error. By implementing the measures above, the results of titration can be more accurately obtained. Reference Yahoo!Mini http://www.titrations.info/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titration http://hk.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/question?qid=7010032200973 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_solution http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_standard http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/alevel/module1/documents/N-ch1-49.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_logger HKCEE Chemistry Notes Section IV by Ms Sin W L F.6 Chemistry Notes Section I by Ms Sin W L End ?? ?? ?? ?? F.6 Chemistry TAS/Experiment 1/P.1(8) 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Heat of Neutralization. Objective: To investigate the ...

    5 star(s)

    This was because we assumed heat was instantly exchanged at the time of mixing. Thus, the ?T we used in the calculations are the ?T at mixing time. Notice that no reasonable temperature readings could be taken at the time of mixing, therefore we needed to assume that the temperature

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

    * 1 Evaporating Dish 1 evaporating dish is required due to the fact that only sodium carbonate is going to be heated up. The evaporating dish helps to heat the sodium carbonate up to make it anhydrous. Nothing else is going to be heated.

  1. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    However, I realised that this would most likely not share the same value as the temperature of the solutions in the boiling tubes. To overcome this problem I placed a thermometer in each boiling tube - one in the tube containing potassium bromide and one in the solution of the other reactants.

  2. Acid-Base Titrations.

    As a consequence, Ka = 1.75 x 10-5 = [H3O+][CH3COO-]/[CH3COOH] and [H3O+] = 1.75 x 10-5, pH = 4.76. The acetic acid is three-quarters titrated when 75 mL of the NaOH solution have been added. At this point 3/4 of the original moles of CH3COOH have been titrated to CH3COO-,

  1. Determination of the Amounts of Sodium Hydroxide Solution and Sodium Carbonate in a Mixed ...

    If no white solid is formed, then I had finished adding BaCl2. Answer To Study Questions 1. Explain the changes of colors of the indicators in the above titrations. In method 1, the solution in the conical flask consists of NaOH and Na2CO3, which are basic.

  2. Acid-base titration. Objective To determine the concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) using sodium ...

    (Use a washing bottle directly in the beginning, followed by using a dropper.) 7. The flask was placed on bench and the solution was allowed to settle. Using a dropper, water was added drop by drop to the flask until the meniscus just touches the graduated mark.

  1. Determination of the content of Mg (OH)2 in an indigestion remedy by back titration ...

    margin of overall error due to lab equipment = 0.023% + 0.4% + 0.1% = ± 0.523% Improvements There are several ways in which this experiment could be improved, so that the accuracy of the result could be improved. Firstly, the NaOH and HCl should have been titrated before the

  2. How are standard solutions prepared & how is titration carried out in industry

    of drugs which are on the product line, theses three examples where titration are used and are just a few examples where titration is carried out in the industrial. The titration in the industry for different types of investigations has been extremely precise and reliable compared to the class titrations.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work