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Produce a summary of energy inputs and outputs for both anaerobic and aerobic respiration. Calculate and compare the relative efficiency of the processes.

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Introduction

Biochemistry Assignment 7 Task 4 - Produce a summary of energy inputs and outputs for both anaerobic and aerobic respiration. Calculate and compare the relative efficiency of the processes. Respiration takes place in every living cell, and provides the energy required for day-to-day living. Glucose is the primary fuel, but must be converted to a more useable form before it can go on to make the fuel, ATP, that is required. So to convert this glucose in to a more useable form Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) must be added. As the glucose is changed and changed many times again, the ATP that is put into the respiration process in turn produces more adenosine tri-phosphate. Respiration not only produces ATP, but also NADH2 (Reduced Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide) and FADH2 (Reduced Flavin- adenine dinucleotide), which when placed in the electron transport chain, also produce ATP in varying quantities. Respiration is a redox reaction; this is short for reduction and oxidation. ...read more.

Middle

The only section of the respiration process that does not involve oxygen is glycolysis, this happens in the cell cytoplasm converting glucose, through many stages to pyruvate. In this section two ATP's are required, and four are produced, so this is a net gain of 2 ATP's. 2 NADH2 are also produced but cannot convert to ATP because there is no oxygen available. AEROBIC - With Oxygen Aerobic respiration also goes through glycolysis so producing a net gain of 2 ATP's as well as 2NADH2, with the same inputs as anaerobic. The link reaction is the stage after glycolysis before the kreb's cycle, because the fructose-1, 6-diphosphate split into two, all of what is produced is doubled. There is no ATP produced directly in this stage but a total of two NADH2 is produced with an input of 2NAD, the NADH2 being converted to ATP in the electron transfer chain. The Krebs cycle produces 3NADH2 with 3NAD input, one FADH2 with one FAD input and one ATP with the ADP input. ...read more.

Conclusion

ATP is also added between fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1:6-phosphate and so the energy levels continue to rise up to the two molecules of Glycerol 1:3 di-phosphate. At this point a substantial amount of energy is lost, this is due to molecules of ATP being released. So this graph gives a good overview of what is happening within glycolysis. ATP is converted from ADP and inorganic phosphate releasing water in a condensation reaction; this requires 30.6 joules of energy to form the necessary bonds. Therefore as a molecule ATP has 30.6 joules of energy, and this is released when ATP is broken down. The efficiency of these process's can be calculated: Energy in ATP x number of ATP molecules x 100 Energy in a glucose molecule Anaerobic Aerobic 30.6 x 2 30.6 x 38 x100 = 2.1625 x100 = 41.08833 2830 (2%) 2830 (41%) So these calculations show that there is a dramatic difference between anaerobic and aerobic with 39% difference. At only 2% anaerobic respiration is not very efficient, but 41% for anaerobic is a huge amount of energy being produced. ...read more.

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