• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Producing Pharmaceuticals: From Bench To Bedside

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Pharmaceuticals: From Bench To Bedside ________________ Aside from illegal intoxicants, rarely any light gets shed on the production of pharmaceuticals. Having attended a lecture at Kings College University given by a Glaxosmithkline (GSK) representative, I was in a more able position to understand the long and arduous procedure of getting a drug from a simple compound to a tablet in your medicine cabinet. And this is what it entails: After extensive market research, a drug company like GSK will see a demand for a certain undiscovered cure to a certain illness. Using what scientists know from knowledge, they come up with a large array of compounds that have the potential to become the cure. ...read more.


Next stage is the formulation. The remaining potentials must be relatively easy to get ingredients for and manufacture on mass scale. There are many factors to be considered; shape, name, immediate or slow release, cream or tablet, storage requirement, shelf life etc. These factors are considered and the compounds that come out as most suitable proceed to the next stage. Next comes the clinical trials. These are both money and time consuming steps yet are vital to the drug?s development. Healthy and hopefully, willing volunteers in small numbers are used and given the drug or a placebo and are monitored extensively for many weeks. The main drawback of this testing stage is that these are healthy volunteers and in small number which make it very misrepresentative albeit useful in finding side effects. ...read more.


The limit to the whole process is that it is market driven and thus must make loads of profit which means miraculous cures are not made if they won’t make money. The chosen drug then goes on to be licensed and patented. Around 5000 compounds start the preclinical stage Only 50 make it to testing on healthy volunteers And then 5 are given to ill patients. And only one out of the initial 5000 is to be sold. The whole process takes: 15 yrs And costs: £ 500,000,000 Which is why drugs tend to cost a ridiculously high as after the patent has expired any company can make your drug, forcing companies to try to get back the 500 mil they invested before the expiry date. It’s a tough world out there. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Electrochemical Cells

    5 star(s)

    if I want to make 50ml of CuSO4 at 0.25mol dm-3, I would need to add 12.5ml of CuSO4 to 37.5ml of water. Analysis Table to show Electrode Potentials of Zinc and Copper Ions (V) Concentration of Zinc Sulphate (mol dm-3) 1.0 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.0625 Concentration of Copper (II)

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Write an essay on electrode potentials.

    5 star(s)

    How are electrode potentials used?? In accordance to the previous examples, a cell emf could also be found if the Mg / Mg2+ and Cu / Cu2+ system are connected. Due to the greater negativeness of Mg and Cu, magnesium serves as the anode (negative electrode)

  1. Asthma, asprin and cures

    Hoffmann returned with a related compound. Putting salicin through a series of chemical reactions, acetylsalicylic acid was created. Acetylsalicylic acid passed chemical trials and was introduced to the market in 1899 with the trade name, Aspirin. How does aspirin work?

  2. Indigestion Tablet

    Add the sodium hydroxide slowly while swirling. Stop when the indicator changes Color 5. Record the volume of sodium hydroxide added 6. Clean the conical flask and fill the burette with sodium hydroxide 7. Measure 25 ml of hydrochloric acid and pour into the conical flask, add one tablet of

  1. Alkaloids are the most diverse group of secondary metabolites and over 5000 compounds are ...

    Two hydoxyls were present as a diacetate and dibenzoate could be formed. Both compounds contained one olefinic double bond as codeine absorbed one. It was found that a reduced phenanthrene with a two-carbon bridge containing a tertiary nitrogen atom (with methyl as on substituent)

  2. Electrochemistry - Inventing Better Batteries

    The use of a porous barrier prevents the copper ions in the copper sulfate solution from reaching the zinc anode and undergoing reduction. This would render the cell ineffective by bringing the battery to equilibrium. Our group has hypothesised that using the Porous Pot as the salt bridge will bring

  1. Residential Broadband Market Overview

    Gradually, over millions of years, they are converted to rock. The particles of rock form layers of sediment. Gradually more and more layers form on top of each other over thousands of years. The weight of the layers on top causes the bottom layers to be pressed together or compressed so the particles fuse together.

  2. Fertilizers and testing for nitrates.

    We then observe any colour change. Litmus indicator solution turns red in acidic solutions and blue in alkaline. Silver nitrate Test Make a solution sample using distilled water, acidify with nitric acid, add a few drops of silver nitrate solution, if a precipitate forms add ammonia solution Barium Test Make

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work