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Production of Alcohol by Fermentation

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Introduction

Production of Alcohol by Fermentation Introduction/ Aim: Yeasts are microbes that produce carbon dioxide and alcohol from sugars. This is called fermentation. In this assignment I am going to try two methods of making alcohol from fruit juice (apple juice). One uses 'free' yeast cells; the other uses 'immobilized' yeast cells. The process of using microorganisms to make useful products from an energy source is called fermentation. This is carried out in large vessels (open or closed) called fermenters. Microorganisms are cheap and easy to grow; they can be used to make antibiotics (penicillin), and useful proteins (insulin). It can also be used for foods such as Quorn. Quorn is also called single cell protein (SCP) e.g. fungi are grown and harvested in fermenters to make Quorn that is then used to make a range of vegetarian meals and SEP made from fungi is called Mycoprotein. In order for me to grow my microorganism these basic factors must be controlled: 1. Temperature 2. Ph (Potential Hydrogen) 3. Nutrients/ Food (Glucose) 4. Gases (Oxygen) 5. Agitation The final product then needs to be sterilised to prevent other microorganisms from infecting/ spoiling the product, this is because the solution is quite delicate and becomes easily spoiled. Equipment/ Apparatus: * Yeast Culture * Apple Juice * Calcium Chloride Solution * Sodium Alginate Solution * Distilled Water * Limewater * Disinfectant * 2 Conical Flasks (250cm�) ...read more.

Middle

7. What do the contents of each flask smell like? Answer: The flask filled with yeast cells and apple juice smells like alcohol and the limewater has a faint unknown smell. Results: After a few weeks I checked on my experiment again and noticed that: * The limewater was cloudy; this must be a signed that the process of fermentation has taken place so I was successful in the experiment. * I noticed the smell of alcohol in one of the beakers so yet again the fermentation process must've been successful. * And also I noticed that the jelly like substance in the beakers captured the yeast cells and immobilised them. Fair Test: In order for me to make the experiment an fair test I could do the experiment three times and then see which two of them are the same, this way this would tell me that the third one that wasn't the same must've been a faulty in the experiment. I could also make it fair by using an thermometer to identify if the temperature of the solution was too high or too low, this way I would then be able to adjust it and then no errors would take place. The factors that will affect my experiment are as followed: * Temperature- The temperatures are not allowed to reach too high or else this will destroy the yeast cells and the temperatures cant reach too low because this will slow down the process of fermentation. ...read more.

Conclusion

When doing the experiment there were anomalous results, the reason for this was because I didn't provide my yeast population with any oxygen and this then caused the yeast cells to die more quickly because they don't have much oxygen to respire, another reason I came up with anomalous results was because I didn't bother to agitate the solution because we didn't have any equipment that was capable of doing this, the agitation helps the yeast cells to move about and this way they are capable of gathering oxygen. My results came out slightly incorrect because the growth of the yeast population was slightly wrong, this was because the yeast cells were not provided with the right factors that yeast cells need in order to perform fermentation. A way in improving my investigation could be by looking up information about fermentation on the internet and look deep into how the yeast cells exactly work when they are fermenting, I could've also tried changing my method or just use different methods, this would help me to identify which method gives me the most accurate and best results out of all the methods. I could extend my investigation by investigating the way yeast cells work and what yeast cells are used for and how they are used in the industry, laboratory and other places. ...read more.

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