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Pulse Rate-Lab Report

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Introduction

BIOLOGY INVESTIGATION Research Question: What is the effect of physical exercise on Pulse Rate of the human heart? Hypothesis: As the level of physical exercise increases, the pulse rate will also increase. Females will have a higher pulse rate difference compared to that of males, of the same age group. Variables: Independent Variable: Climbing Stairs, Using the treadmill Dependent Variable: Heart Beat Rate Control Variables: The following factors were controlled, or kept the same in this test: -Room temperature: In the gym: 220C �0.5, On stairs: 250C �0.5; measured using Thermometer -Time over which subject was under experiment: 2 minutes �0.5 -Time of the day: Period 3, 10.45-11.45am -Time over which subject was allowed to rest before pulse was measured: 20 seconds �0.05, this was measured using a stopwatch -Same equipment used to measure pulse rate in order to have standardized results, that is, pulse rate monitor and stop watch, to the accuracy of �00.5 -Same method used to measure pulse rate -Time over which pulse rate was measured, after exercising: 1 minute �0.05 -Speed on treadmill: Level 6, was kept constant throughout -Same person for tests -Time for person to rest between trials: 2 minutes �0.05 Materials Needed: -Thermometer -Stopwatch -Pulse Rate monitor -Recording Sheet -Stairs -Treadmill Procedure for Controlling Variables: -The time for which subject was allowed to rest before pulse was measured: constantly 20 seconds �00.5, this was measured using a stopwatch - A thermometer was used to ensure the accuracy of the ...read more.

Middle

Data Collection: Raw Data: Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 1 for stair climbing-Female Pulse Rate �0.05 (beats/minute) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Initial pulse rate 118 126 125 Final pulse rate 138 130 139 Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 2 for stair climbing-Male Pulse Rate �0.05 (beats/minute) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Initial pulse rate 72 116 108 Final pulse rate 120 127 133 Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 1 for treadmill-Male Pulse Rate �0.05 (beats/minute) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Initial pulse rate 76 72 74 Final pulse rate 139 124 127 Table showing the initial and final pulse rate for Individual 1 for treadmill-Female Pulse Rate �0.05 (beats/minute) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Initial pulse rate 90 91 95 Final pulse rate 136 139 125 Processed Data: Calculations: Average = value of trial 1+2+3 3 Table showing average pulse rates for Individual 1, Female and Individual 2, Male Initial pulse rate �0.05 (beats/minute) Final pulse rate �0.05 (beats/minute) Individual 1: Stair Climbing 123.00 135.67 Individual 2: Stair Climbing 98.67 126.67 Individual 1: Treadmill 92.00 133.33 Individual 2: Treadmill 74.00 130.00 Background Information: Heart rate: The number of heart beats per unit time, usually per minute. The heart rate is based on the number of contractions of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). The heart rate may be too fast (tachycardia) or too slow (bradycardia). ...read more.

Conclusion

However, there are some problems which can be resolved if this experiment was repeated. The use of pulse rate monitor equipment did work well, but the use of a stethoscope can allow direct and accurate measurements of pulse rates. We also had enough time to allow the individual to get their pulse back to normal. However, as seen, the pulse rate did not lower as much as it should have. For example, during Trial 3, for Males, the initial pulse rate was 108, while in Trial 1 it was about 72. This clearly shows that the time given, which was 2 minutes, was not enough, however due to our time constraint we did not allocate more time. If ever repeated, more time should be provided to subject to allow enough rest so as to be able to reach actual initial pulse rate. Another issue we faced was that the pace of an individual also affects pulse. People may have started off at a quick pace but slower when they begin to get tired, or in the case of stairs, more energy is needed to climb up the stairs. Also, I did not measure the person's heart rate in the same position as they were before and after exercising. If a person was standing instead of sitting, the pulse rate would obviously be higher since muscle energy is still being used to help keep the person upright. For further improvements, the final pulse rate should be taken while the person is in the same position as the initial readings. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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3 star(s)

While this investigation into the effect of exercise on heart rate had a number of positive aspects to it, it also suffered from some very basic weaknesses that undermine the validity of the data collected. It is worth studying these areas since they are fairly common among students who are coming to experimental science for the first time. [1] Science investigations are about testing a hypothesis. A hypothesis is an idea resulting from observations, together with researched scientific knowledge from previous work. In this case, the hypothesis was not supported by observation or knowledge. [2] The independent variable must have a range of values in order for a trend to be observed. Here, the writer tests only two I.V. values. [3] In order for data to be considered valid (useful), it must be reliable, and reliability comes from large sample sizes, ie. repeating readings . In this case, the writer has only one male and one female subject. [4] The results are discussed using too much 'hearsay' and not enough human physiology knowledge. The physiology of circulation is well documented and any pulse rate investigation should draw on the vast reservoir of knowledge online. The structure of the report is adequate, although it lacked a risk assessment, but the key weaknesses above would prevent this gaining high grades at GCSE

Marked by teacher Ross Robertson 10/04/2013

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