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Qualitative Analysis

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Objective: To increase the power of observation and deduction, to give a practice at obtaining and interpreting IR spectra and to identify an unknown compound G. Introduction: Organic compound are so numerous and of such wide variety that the problem of identification is formidable unless approached in a systematic and logical manner. Both spectroscopic and chemical techniques are useful for solving these problems. The general procedures for the identification of an organic compound are: 1. Preliminary physical examination. 2. Determination of the solubility properties of the compound. 3. Qualitative element analysis- for element present in the compound other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 4. Chemical characterization tests- to determine the chemical class of the compound. 5. Spectroscopic analysis- to determine the chemical class of the compound and its structure by interpretation of the IR spectra. 6. Literature search- compares the physical and the spectroscopic properties of the unknown compound with compounds of the same chemical class. 7. Further experiment comparisons- to provide addition chemical tests data that are necessary to complete and confirm the identification. ...read more.


formed Nitro compound was absent Copper sulfate test The solution remains light blue color. Amine was absent Hydroxamate test The solution change from pale yellow to dark purple. Nitrile was present 5. Spectroscopic analysis Frequency (cm-1) Functional group ~ 2253.77 Nitrile Discussion During the experiment, we used sodium fusion test (only for pure compound) for detecting whether nitrogen and halogen are presence in the unknown sample. In sodium fusion test, we used sodium carbonate to react with organic vapor of the unknown organic compound, which was released during heating, and it aims to prevent toxic vapour from escaping. The IR spectra for sample G have lots of un-expected peaks present, it may due to the present of impurities left on the salt plate. In order to obtain better spectra and reduce the errors, we should clean the salt plate twice or more to ensure the chemicals left behind was cleaned. For unknown compound G, the result of solubility test showed that it is possible to be amides amines, nitriles, nitro compounds and halogen substituted. ...read more.


The solution turns from pale yellow to dark purple, which indicated that the present of nitrile. To further confirm the structure of the sample, a IR spectra was obtained. There was a sharp peak at frequency 2253.77 cm-1 (nitrile stretching) which implied the present of nitrile. Finally we inferred the structure of sample G has a molecular formula C2H3N. By calculation we found out the molecular mass is: 14.01+ 2x12.01+ 3x1.01, which match the actual molecular mass of sample G=41.05 g/mol. By checking the reference book, sample G was found to be acetonitrile having poiling point 81-82?, which matched with the data provided. So the sample G was inferred to be acetonitrile. The structure of it is as follow: Throughout the experiment, the result from the chemical tests were difficult to observe which is also difficult to identify a real unknown, therefore spectroscopic analysis are crucial to determine its correct structure. We can also compare the molecular weight, boiling point, melting point and other relevant data with the reference books for confirmation. Conclusion Through a series of tests, we found out that sample G is acetonitrile, CH3CN. The molecular weight of it is 45.01 g/mol and the boiling point is 81-82?. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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