• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

Rates of reaction investigation in to marble and limestone weathering

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction Background information A church was built on a hill; it was mainly made of marble and limestone. In 200 years the walls started to crack, and statues and carvings were not recognisable. It is believed that the cause of the reaction is acid rain. In the area around the church, factories, vehicles and power stations all release acidic gases, which dissolve in rainwater. One of the substances that cause acidic rain is sulphur dioxide; factories burn fuel containing this gas. When released, the sulphur dioxide reacts with water droplets. This makes an acid called sulphuric acid. However nitrogen oxides also cause acidic rain, acid rain is H2O, which has been reacted with nitrogen oxides or sulphur dioxide. The chemical name of limestone and marble is calcium carbonate. This reacts slowly with acids releasing carbon dioxide. This is the process of chemical weathering, which has affected the church. Problem / aim The problem is to investigate the factors affecting the rate of weathering of calcium carbonate; we will investigate exactly what affects the rate of reaction. The chemical reaction we will conclude is, hydrochloric acid reacting with calcium carbonate. If they react, the bonds will break and a successful collision will take place. The solution made is calcium chloride, and the gas, carbon dioxide will bubble off. Word equation Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid --> calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water Symbol equation CaCo3(s) ...read more.

Middle

There will be 3 types of this solid that will be used 1) Big chips 2) Small chips 3) Powder The mass / weight of the calcium carbonate will remain the same, as will the temperature (23�c - room temperature) and no catalyst will be added, the molar will remain at 1M. * Each experiment will be repeated 3 times for accuracy. Safety 1. Always stand up when doing practical work, this ensures if anything is spilt then you can move quickly and easily. 2. Never run, this ensures that you don't trip 3. Always wear your safety goggles, this makes sure that nothing can damage your eye's 4. Always make sure that your bags are under the table, so that no one trips. 5. Always tuck in the stools; this is a way to ensure that the floor isn't cluttered. Throughout this experiment, I will be aware of the equipment I will be using and I will recognise the fact that it is expensive glass equipment. As acid is being used, and a reaction will occur, I will protect my eyes using safety goggles and I will also clean up any spills, and be careful of acid. Accuracy My experiment will be accurate, because I will measure my substances precisely, and I will take accurate results. The experiment will be repeated 3 times, and all equipment will be fair. ...read more.

Conclusion

Averages made up the best and most accurate graph, this is because all of the averages together show, all of the results to the most accurate answer, this gives us an indication of how each experiment differs from one another, we can also use this to compare the results with each different experiment. When actually doing the experiment, I discovered that most things went fairly well, such as accurate results, this was made easy because of the method of recording, and also because our preliminary work, was accurate enough to do the tests. There were a few things that went wrong, such as; the bung didn't always go on the conical flask when it was needed, so that the experiment wouldn't be fair, this meant that we had to restart the testing. The accuracy used in this experiment was very accurate, the timer was started at the right time, the results were recorded at the precise moment, and the substances were measured correctly and exactly to ensure that nothing other than rate of reaction would affect the experiments. To improve this experiment, I could have used a catalyst or added heat, to discover what other than concentration and surface area, actually affected rates of reaction. Overall I found that this experiment was very successful and I predicted pretty much exactly what happened. I was very safe, and followed the rules of safety every step throughout this experiment. Harriet Aspden 10w ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

    If it comes in contact with the eye, bathe the eye in running water for about fifteen minutes. Sodium Carbonate: Risk Assessment Minimum risk involved. It has low toxicity and irritation and therefore, isn't very dangerous; however, care should be taken whilst handling it.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Enthalpy of formation of calcium carbonate

    4 star(s)

    -Some of the samples failed to dissolve completely? - The reading of the thermometer is not accurate enough. -The experiment was not exactly carried out under standard conditions. -Some heat was gained by the gases, a considerable amount of heat is loss to surroundings when the gases are releasing.

  1. Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid

    Molar 2 120 ml 80.0 ml 90.0 ml 96.7 ml 0.5 Molar 3 130 ml 100 ml 110 ml 113.3 ml 0.5 Molar 4 135 ml 120 ml 120 ml 125 ml 0.5 Molar 5 140 ml 130 ml 130 ml 133 ml 0.5 Molar 6 142 ml 135 ml

  2. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    To find the rate equation for the reaction, I will need to find the order of the reaction with respect to Br- ions, BrO3- ions and H+ ions. To do this, I will: o Measure the time taken for the methyl orange to change colour with five different concentrations of

  1. The Determination of rate equation

    1 Black marker - used to place the cross on the white tile and also used to label the test tubes to prevent contamination. 1 Stop watch - used to measure the time it takes for the solution to turn milky/ measure the rate of reaction.

  2. Sulphuric Acid investigation evaluation

    The aim of my experiment was to determine the unknown concentration of a sample of sulphuric (VI) acid, which is thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15 mol/dm3 my calculated concentration of 0.098 mol/dm3 is within this range.

  1. Free essay

    Experiment. Is the order of reaction affected if the acid is monoprotic or diprotic?

    Orders of reaction Reactions can be categorised as zero order, first-order or second-order. These can only be determined experimentally, not theoretically. When a reaction is said to be zero order it means that the rate of the reaction is not dependant on the concentration of the reactant, i.e.

  2. Individual investigation - Reaction to be studied Rate of reaction between propanone and ...

    For concentration against time graph: > Zero order: Concentration must be proportional (inversely) to the time because the reactant is being used up and the gradient is constant. > First order: If the concentration is exponentially decreasing with respect to time, then the half life must be constant which tells

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work