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Rates of reaction investigation in to marble and limestone weathering

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction Background information A church was built on a hill; it was mainly made of marble and limestone. In 200 years the walls started to crack, and statues and carvings were not recognisable. It is believed that the cause of the reaction is acid rain. In the area around the church, factories, vehicles and power stations all release acidic gases, which dissolve in rainwater. One of the substances that cause acidic rain is sulphur dioxide; factories burn fuel containing this gas. When released, the sulphur dioxide reacts with water droplets. This makes an acid called sulphuric acid. However nitrogen oxides also cause acidic rain, acid rain is H2O, which has been reacted with nitrogen oxides or sulphur dioxide. The chemical name of limestone and marble is calcium carbonate. This reacts slowly with acids releasing carbon dioxide. This is the process of chemical weathering, which has affected the church. Problem / aim The problem is to investigate the factors affecting the rate of weathering of calcium carbonate; we will investigate exactly what affects the rate of reaction. The chemical reaction we will conclude is, hydrochloric acid reacting with calcium carbonate. If they react, the bonds will break and a successful collision will take place. The solution made is calcium chloride, and the gas, carbon dioxide will bubble off. Word equation Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid --> calcium chloride + carbon dioxide + water Symbol equation CaCo3(s) ...read more.

Middle

There will be 3 types of this solid that will be used 1) Big chips 2) Small chips 3) Powder The mass / weight of the calcium carbonate will remain the same, as will the temperature (23�c - room temperature) and no catalyst will be added, the molar will remain at 1M. * Each experiment will be repeated 3 times for accuracy. Safety 1. Always stand up when doing practical work, this ensures if anything is spilt then you can move quickly and easily. 2. Never run, this ensures that you don't trip 3. Always wear your safety goggles, this makes sure that nothing can damage your eye's 4. Always make sure that your bags are under the table, so that no one trips. 5. Always tuck in the stools; this is a way to ensure that the floor isn't cluttered. Throughout this experiment, I will be aware of the equipment I will be using and I will recognise the fact that it is expensive glass equipment. As acid is being used, and a reaction will occur, I will protect my eyes using safety goggles and I will also clean up any spills, and be careful of acid. Accuracy My experiment will be accurate, because I will measure my substances precisely, and I will take accurate results. The experiment will be repeated 3 times, and all equipment will be fair. ...read more.

Conclusion

Averages made up the best and most accurate graph, this is because all of the averages together show, all of the results to the most accurate answer, this gives us an indication of how each experiment differs from one another, we can also use this to compare the results with each different experiment. When actually doing the experiment, I discovered that most things went fairly well, such as accurate results, this was made easy because of the method of recording, and also because our preliminary work, was accurate enough to do the tests. There were a few things that went wrong, such as; the bung didn't always go on the conical flask when it was needed, so that the experiment wouldn't be fair, this meant that we had to restart the testing. The accuracy used in this experiment was very accurate, the timer was started at the right time, the results were recorded at the precise moment, and the substances were measured correctly and exactly to ensure that nothing other than rate of reaction would affect the experiments. To improve this experiment, I could have used a catalyst or added heat, to discover what other than concentration and surface area, actually affected rates of reaction. Overall I found that this experiment was very successful and I predicted pretty much exactly what happened. I was very safe, and followed the rules of safety every step throughout this experiment. Harriet Aspden 10w ...read more.

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