• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes. Aim; the aim of this experiment is to investigate the factors that affect the rate of nucleophilic substitution reaction. (ref1) Nucleophilic substitution is where an "electron rich" nucleophile selectively bonds with partially positive charge of an atom attached to a group or atoms called the leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile. Apparatus Goggles, for eye protection Test tube rack and Test tubes 250cm beaker Pipette Thermometer to measure the temperature Measuring cylinder Halogenoalkes 1. 1-Chlorobutane(C2H5Cl) 2. 1-Bromobutane(C2H5Br) 3. 1-Iodobutane(C2 H5 I) Stop Watch Diluted aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Silver Nitrate solution at 0.1 mol dm-3 Ethanol Prediction I predict that iodoalkane would react fastest because it's got the weakest bond because iodines the biggest molecule so the bond is longer and therefore weaker. The Electronegativity is factor that can have some influence in reaction of the haogenoalkane but in this case it is not as significant. ...read more.

Middle

* Temperature- The higher the temperature of the chemicals/substances or the surroundings the higher the rate of reaction as the heat provides the particles with kinetic energy allowing them to collide into each other harder and faster. To keep this factor constant I shall make sure that the whole experiment is conducted at the room temperature, except when the haloalkanes are in the how water bath. * Pressure-If the pressure is increased then the particles will collide into each other more often and more quickly there fore the number of successful collisions will increase. Method I am going to be using three halogenoalkanes 1-Chlorobutane; 1-Bromobutane and 1-Iodobutane.I shall have 3 test tubes, each of which will contain each of the halogenoalkanes and also 1cm � of ethanol. Then I shall place the test tubes in water bath which will be set at about 50�C.The at the same time I will put a tube containing 5cm� of 0.1 mol dm-� silver nitrate solution in the same beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

ion present observation Cl- white precipitate Br- very pale cream precipitate I- very pale yellow precipitate (Ref2) These are the expected colour of the precipitates that should be formed. When silver nitrate is added to the halogenoalkanes. The speed or time the mixture will take to reach this colour will inform me of its reactivity. The mixture that produces the precipitate the quickest will be the most reactive. Safety Hazards: When undergoing these experiments there is always a risk involved as there are lots of potentially harmful chemicals and substances such as the Halogenoalkanes them selves , I shall have to be careful when handling them as they are both corrosive and irritants, so for safety reasons I will immediately wash my hands after handling these chemicals or after direct contact. Also I will were protective goggles because the chemicals that I am going to be using are corrosive and irritants if any of it manages to get in my eyes then that can be very dangerous. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes

    The only problems that did occur which may have affected the results in some way is having drops of the halogenoalkane hitting the side of the test tube and not running all the way down and therefore meant that the reaction with the silver nitrate was much faster than it should have been.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Distilled water was then added until the solution was 1cm3 below the graduation mark. Using a dropping pipette enough water was added to bring the bottom of the meniscus up to the graduation mark. A stopper was added to the flask and inverted several times to help mix the contents.

  1. Planning Coursework - Investigation of rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes

    *The amount of ethanol used will be 2cm3, this is to ensure all the halogenoalkanes has been dissolved thoroughly for the hydrolysis reaction. *The amount of aqueous silver nitrate solution used in this experiment will be 2cm3, this is to allow sufficient silver ions found in the solution for the formation of silver halide precipitate.

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    Plutonium - 239 is bombarded with alpha particles to produce an isotope of curium 23994 Co + 42He � 24296 Cm + 10 n NUCLEI BOMBARDMENT: Transuranic elements can also be produced by bombarding target nuclei with nuclei of other elemnets using particle accelerators.

  1. The aim of this experiment is to obtain the rate equation for the reaction ...

    9. (Obtaining values for the concentration of iodine) 6 experiments were done for the whole class and our group was responsible for doing experiments a, f and g (varying volume of HCl added) 10. HCl was added to a burette and propanone was added to another burette. 11.

  2. Rates of Halogenoalkanes

    + H2O (l) = C4H9OH (aq) + HI (aq) Equation of reaction with aqueous silver nitrate solution: hydrogen iodide + silver nitrate = silver iodide + nitric acid HI (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) = AgI (s) + HNO3 (aq) Predictions: Firstly I predict that during warming, reactions will occur in all test tubes except the control.

  1. Aim: To determine how the concentration of each species in a reaction affects the ...

    References: - Essential A2 Chemistry for OCR by Ted Lister and Janet Renshaw - pages 99, 100, 101, 102 and 103 - http://www.avogadro.co.uk/kinetics/rate_equation.htm - Chemistry 2 by Brian Ratcliff and Helen Eccles - pages 108, 109 and 110 - http://www.steve.gb.com/science/kinetics.html Prediction: The greater the concentration of HCl or Na2S2O3, the

  2. Chemistry Investigation - How does chain length affect: ∆Hcè for alcohols?

    * The spirit burner should be lit and then the alcohol must burn with Oxygen until the water volume experiences a 10� temperature increase. * The spirit burner lid must be replaced to extinguish the flames when this temperature rise is achieved.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work