• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes. Aim; the aim of this experiment is to investigate the factors that affect the rate of nucleophilic substitution reaction. (ref1) Nucleophilic substitution is where an "electron rich" nucleophile selectively bonds with partially positive charge of an atom attached to a group or atoms called the leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile. Apparatus Goggles, for eye protection Test tube rack and Test tubes 250cm beaker Pipette Thermometer to measure the temperature Measuring cylinder Halogenoalkes 1. 1-Chlorobutane(C2H5Cl) 2. 1-Bromobutane(C2H5Br) 3. 1-Iodobutane(C2 H5 I) Stop Watch Diluted aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Silver Nitrate solution at 0.1 mol dm-3 Ethanol Prediction I predict that iodoalkane would react fastest because it's got the weakest bond because iodines the biggest molecule so the bond is longer and therefore weaker. The Electronegativity is factor that can have some influence in reaction of the haogenoalkane but in this case it is not as significant. ...read more.

Middle

* Temperature- The higher the temperature of the chemicals/substances or the surroundings the higher the rate of reaction as the heat provides the particles with kinetic energy allowing them to collide into each other harder and faster. To keep this factor constant I shall make sure that the whole experiment is conducted at the room temperature, except when the haloalkanes are in the how water bath. * Pressure-If the pressure is increased then the particles will collide into each other more often and more quickly there fore the number of successful collisions will increase. Method I am going to be using three halogenoalkanes 1-Chlorobutane; 1-Bromobutane and 1-Iodobutane.I shall have 3 test tubes, each of which will contain each of the halogenoalkanes and also 1cm � of ethanol. Then I shall place the test tubes in water bath which will be set at about 50�C.The at the same time I will put a tube containing 5cm� of 0.1 mol dm-� silver nitrate solution in the same beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

ion present observation Cl- white precipitate Br- very pale cream precipitate I- very pale yellow precipitate (Ref2) These are the expected colour of the precipitates that should be formed. When silver nitrate is added to the halogenoalkanes. The speed or time the mixture will take to reach this colour will inform me of its reactivity. The mixture that produces the precipitate the quickest will be the most reactive. Safety Hazards: When undergoing these experiments there is always a risk involved as there are lots of potentially harmful chemicals and substances such as the Halogenoalkanes them selves , I shall have to be careful when handling them as they are both corrosive and irritants, so for safety reasons I will immediately wash my hands after handling these chemicals or after direct contact. Also I will were protective goggles because the chemicals that I am going to be using are corrosive and irritants if any of it manages to get in my eyes then that can be very dangerous. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Rates of Halogenoalkanes

    I predict that as the halogen is changed down the group, i.e. from chlorine to bromine to iodine, the rate of hydrolysis will increase. This is because the bond enthalpy of a carbon-iodine bond is lower than that of a carbon-bromine bond, which is subsequently lower than that of a carbon-chlorine bond.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    and poured into the Hirsch funnel so that no crystals were lost this process is known as re-crystallisation and is a way of purifying a solid product. * The crystals were then placed on a filter paper to dry overnight.

  1. The aim of this experiment is to obtain the rate equation for the reaction ...

    7.0 0.0060 0.77 4.0 6.0 0.0080 0.87 5.0 5.0 0.010 0.96 The concentration of [I2(aq)] in experiment a, f and g were found by comparing the meter reading with the calibration curve. Experiment a Time/min 0.5 1 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Meter reading 0.62

  2. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    indicators allowing for the determination of acidity and basicity within a narrow range -- These common indicators change colour characteristic to the acid or base concentrations of solution -- Each indicators has its own pH range where it changes colour identify and describe some everyday uses of indicators including the

  1. The Preparation of 1-bromobutane

    Small funnel with cotton wool plug 7. Distillation head 21. Glass rod 8. Clamp and stand 22. Small beaker 9. 250cm3 beaker (for water bath) 23. 0-110°C thermometer and holder 10. Conc. Sulphuric acid (10cm3) 24. Specimen tube 11. Anti-bumping granules 12. Reflux condenser 13. Guard tube containing soda lime 14.

  2. Aim: To determine how the concentration of each species in a reaction affects the ...

    The successive half-lives are then calculated, where the half-life is the time taken for the concentration of the species to fall from any chosen value to half that value. The following observations determine which order of reaction is present: * Half-life is equal to zero - Zero Order reaction *

  1. reaction of halogenoalkanes

    I � Br � Cl Most least Reactive Reactive The outer electrons of iodine are further from the positive nucleus as iodine has more electrons than Br and Cl. Therefore it has more shells and the outer electrons are further from the positive nucleus and there is also shielding from inner electron shells.

  2. Chemistry Investigation - How does chain length affect: ∆Hcè for alcohols?

    will use draught proofing to see if my attempts to improve heat transfer efficiency are productive and also whether or not I should further my efforts to solve other problems. PRELIMINARY RESULTS: Controlled Substance Start mass (g) End mass (g)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work