• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes. Aim; the aim of this experiment is to investigate the factors that affect the rate of nucleophilic substitution reaction. (ref1) Nucleophilic substitution is where an "electron rich" nucleophile selectively bonds with partially positive charge of an atom attached to a group or atoms called the leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile. Apparatus Goggles, for eye protection Test tube rack and Test tubes 250cm beaker Pipette Thermometer to measure the temperature Measuring cylinder Halogenoalkes 1. 1-Chlorobutane(C2H5Cl) 2. 1-Bromobutane(C2H5Br) 3. 1-Iodobutane(C2 H5 I) Stop Watch Diluted aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Silver Nitrate solution at 0.1 mol dm-3 Ethanol Prediction I predict that iodoalkane would react fastest because it's got the weakest bond because iodines the biggest molecule so the bond is longer and therefore weaker. The Electronegativity is factor that can have some influence in reaction of the haogenoalkane but in this case it is not as significant. ...read more.

Middle

* Temperature- The higher the temperature of the chemicals/substances or the surroundings the higher the rate of reaction as the heat provides the particles with kinetic energy allowing them to collide into each other harder and faster. To keep this factor constant I shall make sure that the whole experiment is conducted at the room temperature, except when the haloalkanes are in the how water bath. * Pressure-If the pressure is increased then the particles will collide into each other more often and more quickly there fore the number of successful collisions will increase. Method I am going to be using three halogenoalkanes 1-Chlorobutane; 1-Bromobutane and 1-Iodobutane.I shall have 3 test tubes, each of which will contain each of the halogenoalkanes and also 1cm � of ethanol. Then I shall place the test tubes in water bath which will be set at about 50�C.The at the same time I will put a tube containing 5cm� of 0.1 mol dm-� silver nitrate solution in the same beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

ion present observation Cl- white precipitate Br- very pale cream precipitate I- very pale yellow precipitate (Ref2) These are the expected colour of the precipitates that should be formed. When silver nitrate is added to the halogenoalkanes. The speed or time the mixture will take to reach this colour will inform me of its reactivity. The mixture that produces the precipitate the quickest will be the most reactive. Safety Hazards: When undergoing these experiments there is always a risk involved as there are lots of potentially harmful chemicals and substances such as the Halogenoalkanes them selves , I shall have to be careful when handling them as they are both corrosive and irritants, so for safety reasons I will immediately wash my hands after handling these chemicals or after direct contact. Also I will were protective goggles because the chemicals that I am going to be using are corrosive and irritants if any of it manages to get in my eyes then that can be very dangerous. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Hydrolysis of Halogenoalkanes

    The only problems that did occur which may have affected the results in some way is having drops of the halogenoalkane hitting the side of the test tube and not running all the way down and therefore meant that the reaction with the silver nitrate was much faster than it should have been.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to produce Aspirin. This is an estrification in ...

    Distilled water was then added until the solution was 1cm3 below the graduation mark. Using a dropping pipette enough water was added to bring the bottom of the meniscus up to the graduation mark. A stopper was added to the flask and inverted several times to help mix the contents.

  1. Comprehensive and Detailed Chemistry notes

    -- They attach thmselves to a water molecule, forming hydronium ion(H3O+). Ionisation reaction of acids is: HCl (g) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + Cl?(aq) MONOPROTIC ACIDS: -- Can release one hydrogen ion per molecule when they react with a strng base DIPROTIC ACIDS: -- Can release two hydrogen ions

  2. The aim of this experiment is to obtain the rate equation for the reaction ...

    4 0 [Propanone] /mol dm-3 0.4 0.8 1.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 [I2]/ mol dm-3 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.008 0.002 0.004 0.004 [H+]/mol dm-3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.8 1.2 13. The propanone solution was poured into the solution in the boiling tube and the stopwatch was started immediately.

  1. Aim: To determine how the concentration of each species in a reaction affects the ...

    The successive half-lives are then calculated, where the half-life is the time taken for the concentration of the species to fall from any chosen value to half that value. The following observations determine which order of reaction is present: * Half-life is equal to zero - Zero Order reaction *

  2. Chemistry Plan Halogenoalkanes

    Stronger bonds need more energy to be broken; therefore they have a higher bond enthalpy value. From the three main types I have chosen the OH- reaction because. CN- is a very toxic substance which is very dangerous to be used in a laboratory.

  1. Chemistry Investigation - How does chain length affect: ∆Hcè for alcohols?

    In both cases, the mass change during combustion of Propan-1-ol was less than Ethanol, which gives an indication of how Propan-1-ol's longer chain length may relate to its combustion enthalpy. 3. There is no directly proportional relationship between the change in mass and chain length as I previously expected,

  2. reaction of halogenoalkanes

    I � Br � Cl Most least Reactive Reactive The outer electrons of iodine are further from the positive nucleus as iodine has more electrons than Br and Cl. Therefore it has more shells and the outer electrons are further from the positive nucleus and there is also shielding from inner electron shells.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work