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Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes.

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Introduction

Rates of reaction of halogenoalkanes. Aim; the aim of this experiment is to investigate the factors that affect the rate of nucleophilic substitution reaction. (ref1) Nucleophilic substitution is where an "electron rich" nucleophile selectively bonds with partially positive charge of an atom attached to a group or atoms called the leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile. Apparatus Goggles, for eye protection Test tube rack and Test tubes 250cm beaker Pipette Thermometer to measure the temperature Measuring cylinder Halogenoalkes 1. 1-Chlorobutane(C2H5Cl) 2. 1-Bromobutane(C2H5Br) 3. 1-Iodobutane(C2 H5 I) Stop Watch Diluted aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Silver Nitrate solution at 0.1 mol dm-3 Ethanol Prediction I predict that iodoalkane would react fastest because it's got the weakest bond because iodines the biggest molecule so the bond is longer and therefore weaker. The Electronegativity is factor that can have some influence in reaction of the haogenoalkane but in this case it is not as significant. ...read more.

Middle

* Temperature- The higher the temperature of the chemicals/substances or the surroundings the higher the rate of reaction as the heat provides the particles with kinetic energy allowing them to collide into each other harder and faster. To keep this factor constant I shall make sure that the whole experiment is conducted at the room temperature, except when the haloalkanes are in the how water bath. * Pressure-If the pressure is increased then the particles will collide into each other more often and more quickly there fore the number of successful collisions will increase. Method I am going to be using three halogenoalkanes 1-Chlorobutane; 1-Bromobutane and 1-Iodobutane.I shall have 3 test tubes, each of which will contain each of the halogenoalkanes and also 1cm � of ethanol. Then I shall place the test tubes in water bath which will be set at about 50�C.The at the same time I will put a tube containing 5cm� of 0.1 mol dm-� silver nitrate solution in the same beaker. ...read more.

Conclusion

ion present observation Cl- white precipitate Br- very pale cream precipitate I- very pale yellow precipitate (Ref2) These are the expected colour of the precipitates that should be formed. When silver nitrate is added to the halogenoalkanes. The speed or time the mixture will take to reach this colour will inform me of its reactivity. The mixture that produces the precipitate the quickest will be the most reactive. Safety Hazards: When undergoing these experiments there is always a risk involved as there are lots of potentially harmful chemicals and substances such as the Halogenoalkanes them selves , I shall have to be careful when handling them as they are both corrosive and irritants, so for safety reasons I will immediately wash my hands after handling these chemicals or after direct contact. Also I will were protective goggles because the chemicals that I am going to be using are corrosive and irritants if any of it manages to get in my eyes then that can be very dangerous. ...read more.

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