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Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) is a method of changing the inherited characteristics of an organism by altering its genetic material. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA

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NAYAB SAJJAD BIOLOGY ESSAY SKILL I Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) is a method of changing the inherited characteristics of an organism by altering its genetic material. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Important tools in this process are so-called restriction enzymes that are produced by various species of bacteria.Restriction enzymes can recognize a particular sequence of the chain of chemical units, called nucleotide bases, which make up the DNA molecule and cut the DNA at that location. Fragments of DNA generated in this way can be joined using other enzymes called ligases. Restriction enzymes and ligases therefore allow the specific cutting and reassembling of portions of DNA. Also important in the manipulation of DNA are so-called vectors, which are pieces of DNA that can self-replicate (produce copies of themselves) independently of the DNA in the host cell in which they are grown. Examples of vectors include plasmids, viruses, and yeast artificial chromosomes. These vectors permit the generation of multiple copies of a particular piece of DNA, making this a useful method for generating sufficient quantities of material with which to work. ...read more.


or hepatitis from viral contaminants in the blood used to make the product. Since that time, donor blood has been screened for the presence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and hepatitis C virus, and the manufacturing process includes steps to inactivate these viruses if they should be present. The possibility of viral contamination is eliminated completely with the use of recombinant factor VIII. Other uses of genetic engineering include increasing the disease resistance of crops, producing pharmaceutical compounds in the milk of animals, generating vaccines, and altering livestock traits. Recombinant DNA technology also includes insertion of human genes into sheep so that they secrete alpha-1 antitrypsin in their milk - a useful substance in treating some cases of lung disease. NAYAB SAJJAD Human cloning is a type of genetic engineering, but is not the same as true genetic manipulation. In human cloning, the aim is to duplicate the genes of an existing person so that an identical set is inside a human egg. ...read more.


Through a process know as gene therapy, geneticists have the ability to modify parts of genetic material in organisms. Geneticists can add attributes to crops, like tomatoes, that would make them resistant to insects. With such features, dangerous chemicals like DDT that harm the environment, plants, animals, and humans would not be needed. Other enhancements would include prolonged life spans for food products after harvesting. For example, tomatoes have been engineered to last longer so they do not have to be harvested early A major medical difficulty today is the lack of organ donors. Waiting lists are always getting longer, and people are losing their lives as a result. In the future, geneticists would be able to clone pieces of organs and, then, make organs for surgeries involving transplants. Geneticists may even be able to clone cells from damaged organs and then engineer exact duplicates. Genetics will definitely have a large impact on correcting of malfunctions in the human body. Without doubt, genetic engineering has already helped make human life easier and will continue to do so in the future, provided that research on genetic engineering continues. ...read more.

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