• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) is a method of changing the inherited characteristics of an organism by altering its genetic material. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

NAYAB SAJJAD BIOLOGY ESSAY SKILL I Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) is a method of changing the inherited characteristics of an organism by altering its genetic material. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Important tools in this process are so-called restriction enzymes that are produced by various species of bacteria.Restriction enzymes can recognize a particular sequence of the chain of chemical units, called nucleotide bases, which make up the DNA molecule and cut the DNA at that location. Fragments of DNA generated in this way can be joined using other enzymes called ligases. Restriction enzymes and ligases therefore allow the specific cutting and reassembling of portions of DNA. Also important in the manipulation of DNA are so-called vectors, which are pieces of DNA that can self-replicate (produce copies of themselves) independently of the DNA in the host cell in which they are grown. Examples of vectors include plasmids, viruses, and yeast artificial chromosomes. These vectors permit the generation of multiple copies of a particular piece of DNA, making this a useful method for generating sufficient quantities of material with which to work. ...read more.

Middle

or hepatitis from viral contaminants in the blood used to make the product. Since that time, donor blood has been screened for the presence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and hepatitis C virus, and the manufacturing process includes steps to inactivate these viruses if they should be present. The possibility of viral contamination is eliminated completely with the use of recombinant factor VIII. Other uses of genetic engineering include increasing the disease resistance of crops, producing pharmaceutical compounds in the milk of animals, generating vaccines, and altering livestock traits. Recombinant DNA technology also includes insertion of human genes into sheep so that they secrete alpha-1 antitrypsin in their milk - a useful substance in treating some cases of lung disease. NAYAB SAJJAD Human cloning is a type of genetic engineering, but is not the same as true genetic manipulation. In human cloning, the aim is to duplicate the genes of an existing person so that an identical set is inside a human egg. ...read more.

Conclusion

Through a process know as gene therapy, geneticists have the ability to modify parts of genetic material in organisms. Geneticists can add attributes to crops, like tomatoes, that would make them resistant to insects. With such features, dangerous chemicals like DDT that harm the environment, plants, animals, and humans would not be needed. Other enhancements would include prolonged life spans for food products after harvesting. For example, tomatoes have been engineered to last longer so they do not have to be harvested early A major medical difficulty today is the lack of organ donors. Waiting lists are always getting longer, and people are losing their lives as a result. In the future, geneticists would be able to clone pieces of organs and, then, make organs for surgeries involving transplants. Geneticists may even be able to clone cells from damaged organs and then engineer exact duplicates. Genetics will definitely have a large impact on correcting of malfunctions in the human body. Without doubt, genetic engineering has already helped make human life easier and will continue to do so in the future, provided that research on genetic engineering continues. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering

    4 star(s)

    The basis of gene therapy is to supply a functional gene to cells lacking that particular function, thus correcting the genetic disorder or disease. There are two main categories of gene therapy: germ line therapy, or altering of sperm and egg cells, and somatic cell therapy, which is much like an organ transplant.

  2. The Production of Vaccines using Genetic Engineering.

    But it was not until 1796 that the studies of English country doctor Edward Jenner finally set us on the path that led to what we now call a "Vaccine". Aware of the variolation procedure, Jenner noticed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox, a disease of cattle that causes little

  1. Genetic Engineering.

    The second is a number of small rings of double stranded DNA called plasmids. These can be removed from the bacterium and inserted into a new bacterial cell quite easily. In the bacterium the plasmids are able to copy themselves.

  2. Chromosomes and DNA

    DNA is the genetic material in the nucleus of a cell which makes up the chromosomes. Genes are short sections of DNA each acting as a code for a particular characteristic. Since we inherit particular chromosomes through the egg and sperm, we also inherit the particular characteristics they code for.

  1. GCSE Biology Revision

    -Releasing pests which have been infected with disease so that the wild population is infected and destroyed. GLOBAL WARMING: THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT: -High energy radiation from the Sun passes through the atmosphere and is reflected and radiated into space. -Low energy radiation reflects from the Earth and back again to the Earth from the layer of gases.

  2. Free essay

    Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: ...

    Protein Synthesis: Stage one - Transcription: * Transcription is the first step of Protein Synthesis. * It is the process in which the following steps occur: a) DNA unzips. b) mRNA is formed complimentary to the DNA strand. NOTE: A - U, C - G.

  1. Genetic Engineering Should be Banned

    Bombarded with pesticides - and some even genetically enhanced to ward off predators on their own - our health foods are now not only a pool of vitamins and nutrients. They are rapidly becoming toxin breeding centers. Because of genetic modifications, our bodies are slowly losing their ability to recognize the food we consume.

  2. Evaluating generations of fruit flies for inherited characteristics.

    and this result is not as close to the predicted ratio of 3:1, the results obtained did not quite match our prediction because the number of large winged flies should have been at least about three times larger than the number of vestigial winged flies.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work