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# Reducing sugar plan

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Introduction

Planning Exercise Introduction The aim of the experiment is to test three samples of solution of fresh orange, lemon and grapefruit juice, and distinguish the amount of reducing sugars each one contains and to compare glucose standards. The experiment is going to be conducted in a similar manger to the preliminary experiments in that I am going to add the same amount of glucose solution, the same amount of distilled water and benedict's solution and then place it all in bath water and begin taking results from there on. Prediction I predict that all three of the juices will contain reducing sugars that will reduce the copper ions in the benedict's solution. The reason for my prediction is that all three of the juices originate from a fruit and will therefore contain the sugar fructose. Fructose is a monosaccharide. Monosaccharides are single sugar unit's, they have the general formula, (CH2O)n, because they have a C=O bond in the molecule they can contribute an electron to the copper, and therefore they are reducing sugars, in the process they themselves are oxidised. Reducing sugar + Cu2+ - oxidised sugar + Cu+ This C=O bond is known as the anomeric carbon atom, sugars reduce benedict's solution when the anomeric carbon atom is made available to reduce the copper ions. ...read more.

Middle

Variables In order for it to be a fair test the measurements of everything in the experiment need to remain the same. The temperature at which the solutions should be heated at 75 degrees, and left in for exactly 9 minutes. These are all the factors that we can control, the variables will of course be the different sugars which we are testing for the amount of glucose. Although the sample in themselves will be different the amount should remain the same so that it will be a fair test. The reason why we conduct a fair test is so that the results we get at the end of it will be reliable and so that we will be able to analyse the results confidently and make accurate predictions for future experiments. From preliminary experiments, it is possible to rely on the factors that we will control and know that the volume of solution, the temperature, etc.. is suitable for the experiment we are planning to undergo. Whilst conducting an experiment it is important to consider the risks and safety precautions, for example to wear safety goggles, and a lab coat etc.. This is to ensure we always remain safe throughout the experiment. ...read more.

Conclusion

From these results you are able to draw a calibration curve, which could then be used to find out the concentrations of unknown solutions by simply reading of the values on the curve. Outline From looking at the preliminary experiments we are able to see that the results were of high-quality and therefore we can feel confident that the following experiment we are about to perform will be a success and give us an accurate set of results. Out of all three of the experiments done the final one was probably most accurate as a colorimeter was used which means we will also be using a colorimeter in the experiment to take place. From looking at the preliminary experiments I am certain that I will not change any of the variables, or the method. Therefore I will carry on as normal, as a result my prediction remains the same. I believe all of the solutions will contain reducing sugars, hence turn the solution a red colour. The solution will reduce the benedict's solution because it is a monosaccharide, which are single sugar units. Sugars are able to reduce a benedict's solution when the anomeric carbon atom is made available to reduce the copper ions in the solution. The best way to test my prediction now, is to carry out my experiment. ?? ?? ?? ?? Stephanie Subramaniam 12CJ6 ...read more.

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