• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Relating the structure and function of cell organelles

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Relate the structure and function of cell organelles Cells are like cities with intricate organelles 'living and working' in it. There are basically two kinds of cells, namely Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Both plant cells and animal cells are eukaryotic while prokaryotic cells are simplier organisms that possess non-membrane bounded organelles. In most cells they contains the following organelles which carry out unique functions and allow cells to work properly. To start off with, nucleus is a large roundish organelle enclosed by a double membrane with numerous openings, namely nuclear pores, for nuclear traffic. It contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli. Nucleolus is a spherical site where ribosomes are formed. Chromosomes contain DNA which tends to be packed in form of chromatin. Only during interphrase (a stage before a cell divides in a cell division process), chromosomes will be unravelled for easier replication. Tiny, hollow cylinders of protein called centrioles form a network of spindle fibres in the nucleus during nuclear division to pull chromosomes apart. The inner membrane of nucleus will break down and allow chromosomes lying freely in cytoplasm. ...read more.

Middle

New protein are synthesised in the rER and buds-off at the other end into the cytoplasm. Part of the rER containing cell products moved to the Golgi apparatus (also known as Golgi body). The Golgi apparatus is layers of fluid-filled flattened sacs with smaller vacuoles or vesicles at both ends of the main structure and roughly parallel to each other. It serves as a packaging department to deliver protein products made in the cell. Molecules from rER are processed and packaged in the sacs to form other substances such as carbohydrates and enzymes so that they are well isolated. When the products are excreted from the Golgi apparatus, they appear as vacuoles at both ends of the body. Lysosomes are also made in the Golgi apparatus. It is a small membrane-bounded sac vesicles in the cytoplasm filled with digestive enzymes to break down and remove worn out parts of the cell. They bud off from the Golgi apparatus and fuse with the food vacuoles. The products packaged from golgi apparatus are then released out of the cell by exocytosis through the plasma membrane. ...read more.

Conclusion

In an animal cell, it is just a tiny waste storage space. A plant cell has all the same organelles with similar functions as animal cells but a few extras. Cell wall and chloroplast are organelles found only in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms. Cell wall is a rigid layer with plasmodesmata. This allows the exchange of substances with adjacent cells. The cell wall is mainly made of carbohydrate cellulose. Cellulose is a disaccharide with more complex bonding which requires more energy to break the bonds. Thus it can provide mechanical support and protection. Chloroplasts have similar functions as the mitochondria. It is a small, flattened discs surrounded by a double membrane. It contains internal membranes called thylakoids which form coin-like stacks called grana and linked by thin, flat pieces of thylakoids membranes called lamellae. Photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoids membranes to provide the cell with glucose. There is also a thick fluid called stroma in the chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place there sometimes. In general, the structures and the functions of organelles have a close linkage. With the above information, it is shown that all organelles have their unique way of operation which none of it is dispensable. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

This is a very well researched and concisely written report.
1. Improvements could be made by including images to illustrate concepts
2. The use of key terms and language is excellent
3. The conclusions is very brief
*****

Marked by teacher Luke Smithen 17/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down ...

    4 star(s)

    465 6 -1 1 7 0.2 8 684 9 -1 1 8 0.2 8 673 8 0 0 9 0.2 8 670 7 1 1 10 0.4 11 804 10 1 1 11 0.4 11 830 12 -1 1 12 0.4 11 822 11 0 0 13 0.6 14 884

  2. Investigation of the effect of adding different concentrations of NaCl to an enzyme-substrate (amylase-starch) ...

    Amount of NaCl in solution (cm�) Number of iodine drops added at 10 second intervals Time taken for solution to change colour from orange to blue/black (seconds) 0.0 51 510.0 1.0 9 90.0 0.8 10 99.5 0.6 11 110.0 0.4 12 120.0 0.2 22 220.5 Third Run Table to show change in time taken for a

  1. Describe the structure of the xylem and the phloem.

    The walls of the xylem are impregnated with lignin. Lignin is a strong, hard substance and is impermeable to water. This was laid down when the plant was growing, and gives the xylem many added properties. The first being that it has added mechanical strength, and helps stop the structure collapsing under the large forces in transpiration, and stops it blowing apart under the large hydrostatic pressures.

  2. Investigating Catalase Activity in Different Plant Tissues.

    22 0.046 10 65 0.015 61 0.016 0.015 68 0.015 72 0.014 Graph Analysing My graph shows a pattern that is virtually the same as my prediction. At pH 1.5 the average rate is 0.000s-1. By pH 4 the average rate has gone up to 0.017s-1.

  1. Comparison of a plant and animal cell.

    A plant cell has a Vacuole to help provide some structural support for the cell. Although an animal cell does have a vacuole, it is not needed for the same reason. It uses its vacuole to help with intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products, and, in comparison to a plant vacuole, it is very small.

  2. The investigation to find the effect of glucose concentration on fermentation of yeast.

    To ensure this I could have possibly performed the experiment more times, for more tests. The methods that concocted to investigate the fermentation of yeast was appropriate the aim, because it enabled me to make relevant conduction and to find the time taken for the phenolphthalein to become colourless.

  1. WHAT EFFECT DOES SUBSTRATE HAVE ON THE RATE OF RESPIRATION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE?

    The table below summarises the total amount of ATP produced by respiration of one glucose molecule. However, the table above is only appropriate to aerobic (with oxygen) respiration. So if oxygen is present, the four stages summarised above occur, synthesising 38 molecules of ATP but what happens when no oxygen is present?

  2. Describe how the Organelles in the Beta Cells Work Together to Produce and Secrete ...

    It is known as the fluid mosaic model. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer: made of 2 layers of phospholipids. The hydrophilic phosphate heads face the extra-cellular fluid and cytoplasm. The hydrophobic tails are inside the membrane, protected from the water.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work