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Research About Enzymes

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RESEARCH ABOUT ENZYMES Enzymes are biological catalysts, speeding up reactions without being changed themselves. Enzymes regulate most reactions that happen in living organisms. Without them, they would happen a lot slower. Enzymes catalyze all aspects of cell metabolism. This includes the digestion of food, in which large nutrient molecules (such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) are broken down into smaller molecules. Many inherited human diseases, such as albinism, result from a deficiency of a particular enzyme. Enzymes are also useful in industry and medicine - for example, bread making, beer brewing, helping wounds to heal and killing microorganisms that cause disease. Enzymes are made of proteins, which are made of amino acids. They are efficient and specific - each type speeds up the rate of a reaction, but will only work on one kind of substrate. (The substrate is the chemical it acts on.) All cells contain enzymes, which usually vary in number and composition, depending on the cell type; an average mammal cell, for example, generally contains about 3,000 enzymes Some enzymes help to break down large nutrient molecules, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, into smaller molecules. ...read more.


40�C 14.56 896 Enzyme C (3) 40�C 15.47 947 Av. = 15.21 Av. = 921 From these results, I can see that Enzyme A is the strongest concentration, followed by B, and then C. I decided to use concentration B for the experiment when I did it for real as C took far too long, and A was a bit too quick and it would be harder to get an accurate reading because of that. Predictions: I think that the rate of reaction will increase up until c. 40�C, and then it will decrease, because the enzyme will work better at its optimum temperature, which is just under 40�C, but after this temperature it will denature and stop working. Apart from temperatures higher than its optimum temperature, it will work better the higher the temperature gets because the heat will give the enzymes and albumen molecules more energy so they move around more and are therefore more likely to collide and cause a reaction. If I use the same concentration of Trypsin as in the preliminary work, I should get similar results for the reaction at 40�C. ...read more.


The Q10 between 27 and 37 is triple, not double, and I think this shows the massive increase in rate between these temperatures as it is reaching the optimum temperature. Evaluation: Some of the results came out differently to what was expected - for example, after 40�C the enzymes would have been denatured and so should have had a lower rate. This is because I took more than one lesson to complete the experiment, and the trypsin, like any enzyme, is slightly different each time it's made, and these tiny differences can make a big difference to the results. The albumen could also have been different every time it was made. Ways to improve: I think that to make it more accurate next time, the experiment has to be completed in one day so that it is the same batches of chemicals that are used. More thermometers could be placed in the water baths to make sure that they are at the correct temperatures. There is another procedure to test trypsin but it uses photographic film instead of albumen, which is more difficult but gives more accurate results if done correctly. Using photographic film: this method uses photographic film, which is covered in a layer of proteins, which can be digested by trypsin. ...read more.

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