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Research on mad cow disease and creutzfeldt-jacob disease

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Introduction

Prion Diseases Mad Cow & Mad Human Aamir Shaikh's SNAB AS coursework Unit 3: Paper 01 Visit or Issue Report Word Count: 1, 964 The two topics covered are Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD), with CJD being the main topic. This is aimed at students who are studying A levels and wish to gain further insight into BSE & CJD. This can be used as a handout or a small text booklet that can be supplied/handed out to student during class/lecture Topic 1 Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease What is CJD? 1 Symptoms and Effects of CJD 1 Causes of CJD 2 Structure of a prion 2 What do prions do? 3 Methods to combat prions 3 Research 4 Topic 2 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy What is BSE? 4 Symptoms of BSE 4 Causes 4 Prevention 5 Glossary 6 Bibliography 7 Validity 8 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease? Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease is a rare yet fatal degenerative neurological disorder (brain disease). It is the most common form of 'transmissible spongiform encephalopathy' found in humans. Named after the two German neurologists, Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt and Alfons Maria Jakob, who first described the disease in the 1920's. After careful observation the two neurologists realised that the brains of patients who had died from the disease had most of their nerve cells replaced by fine fibres spotted with microscopic holes of that similar to of a sponge. 1, 2, 3 Symptoms and effects of CJD There are many problems that arise when trying to correctly diagnose a person with CJD because firstly it has a very long ...read more.

Middle

Eventually the continuous production of prions will result in cell death, this is because prions join up to create a form of plaque known as amyloids within the central nervous system. These plaque formations disrupt normal tissue structure this is expressed as holes in the tissue creating a sponge like architecture due to the destruction of neurones. 9 Methods to combat prions Due to The very stable shape of the PrPSc molecule it is virtually indestructible; it is also resistant against proteases, an enzyme in the body whose job it is to break down proteins when the number of proteins becomes too great. This is because enzymes rely on a lock and key system to work, meaning they have particular shapes and attach themselves to the corresponding shape and break them down, as the prion has an abnormal shape the protease can not join itself to the prion. 16 The prion is also immune against ultraviolet radiation which is usually used to inactivate viruses by destroying their nucleic acid, but as the prion consists purely of protein the ultraviolet light is practically useless against it. 15 Research Research led by John Collinge and Giovanna Mallucci of the MRC prion unit, University College London, UK, are breeding mutant mice that lack the prion protein. So far their results have shown that in mice that lack this protein, a similar disease to that of CJD ceases. Though the infected prion is still present in the mice, the mice seem to remain healthy while normal mice who carry the normal prion protein die the soon. ...read more.

Conclusion

Retrieved April 21, 2008, from Encyclop�dia Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9061428 16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/sci/tech/3228549.stm 16 17. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_spongiform_encephalopathy 18. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/ home > topics a-z list > mad cow disease and variant creutzfeldt-jakob dis article Last Editorial Review: 9/12/2005 -News.bb.co.uk- I am aware that this is a news website and was fully aware during my research that since it is a media based website the information it holds is very likely to be tainted or bias, however whatever information I chose to extract from the website I compared with research I found from other more trust worthy sites and science journals, it either fitted in or matched the information on these other sources, therefore I regarded the information I extracted to be of that of value and valid. -en.wikipedia.org- I regarded the online wikipedia with great caution when using it for my research as I was aware that unqualified, random users can alter, change add and withdraw information on wikipedia. However as before I compared findings with already gathered information and though I will not classify the whole of wikipedia as a valid source I declare that the few bits of information I extracted from it are trust worthy. -Salter Nuffield Advance Biology, AS Student Book, Published 2005- I considered this to be a very strong source of information as it a text book used to teach students as level biology, and is therefore exam board approved. -www.irishhealth.com- this website provided useful information on the CJD diseases, I deemed it a valid source as it is dedicated to health and diseases and as it is going out to the public I am confident in thinking it holds no invalid information, hence accepting it as a valid source. ...read more.

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