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Research the use of recombinant DNA in the production of human insulin and two other named proteins of your choice.

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Introduction

Research the use of recombinant DNA in the production of human insulin and two other named proteins of your choice Recombinant DNA is DNA that has been created artificially. DNA from two or more sources is incorporated into a single recombinant molecule. There are three different methods by which Recombinant DNA is made. They are: Transformation, Phage Introduction, and Non-Bacterial Transformation. In this essay I will be discussing these methods which are used to make insulin, erythropoietin, and factor VIII. Insulin reduces the blood glucose level (BGL) which is raised by the intake and metabolizing of carbohydrates. High levels of glucose in the blood will cause problems so the sugar level must be returned to normal as soon as possible. When the blood sugar level rises, the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas release insulin into the blood. Insulin makes the liver convert glucose to glycogen, which is stored primarily in the liver but also in the muscles - this results in lowering the BGL. When the BGL is low, the pancreas stops producing insulin. Diabetics cannot produce any or enough of their own insulin so they must inject commercially produced insulin. The gene for insulin production that is inserted into bacteria comes from a human chromosome form a pancreatic cell. ...read more.

Middle

The different distances that the fragments of DNA move produce invisible banding; this banding can be revealed by staining the DNA. - The second method of isolation uses reverse transcription to make a copy of the gene. This is the opposite of normal transcription, as in this process a sequence of DNA is copied from a messenger RNA template. mRNA is obtained from cells from the human pancreas and used as a template to produce a complementary single strand of DNA from free nucleotides. This process is catalysed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The single strand of DNA is now made double stranded from free nucleotides and the enzyme DNA polymerase. The advantages of using this method as opposed to the first isolation method is that each active cell will have many copies of the mRNA so it should be easier to find the single copy of the DNA gene in each cell. Also, the length of the mRNA strand corresponds exactly to the DNA gene, and does not need to be cut out of a longer piece. Another reason why the second method is more effective is that it is difficult to use genes form eukaryotic cell for use in prokaryotic cells when using restriction enzymes to cut the gene form the DNA chain. ...read more.

Conclusion

In microinjection, the DNA is injected directly into the nucleus of the cell being transformed. In biolistics, the host cells are bombarded with high velocity microprojectiles, such as particles of gold or tungsten that have been coated with DNA. Phage Introduction Phage introduction is the process of transfection, which is equivalent to transformation, except a phage is used instead of bacteria. In vitro packaging of a vector is used. This uses lambda or MI3 phages to produce phage plaques which contain recombinants. The recombinants that are created can be identified by differences in the recombinants and non-recombinants using various selection methods. The various methods of using recombinant in medicine vary according the substance which is intended to be made and the type of bacteria that is to act as a host cell. Recombinant DNA or genetic engineering is now commonly used in agriculture and cattle breeding to combine positive features of various species. One of the main goals of genetic engineers is to produce a plant with nitrogen-fixing bacteria in its roots. This way it would be able to supply its own nitrates and have a vastly improved growth rate. Despite this however genetic engineering is not universally approved as there are a number of moral issues that have been raised as a result of its manipulating nature. ...read more.

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