• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Respiration. There are 2 forms of respiration; Aerobic and Anaerobic.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Respiration takes place in all living things, all the time. It is a complex chemical process that oxidises food molecules, such as glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy is trapped as ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) energy for living organisms to use when they need it. Examples that organisms can use ATP energy for; Growth, Repair, Movement, Biosynthesis, Locomotion, Transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Animals digest food to produce these molecules of glucose, lipids etc, which are then absorbed into the blood stream and transported around the body. Aerobic respiration is using oxygen to respire; this is mainly used by multi-cellular organisms. Oxygen is absorbed lungs, gills, or the body surface and is usually distributed around the body by the circulatory system. ...read more.

Middle

In aerobic respiration glucose reacts with oxygen in the mitochondria of the cells to release energy. Carbon dioxide and water are by-products of the reaction. Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 2900kJ Anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen, and is used by some organisms that can only respire anaerobically, such as bacteria. Some organisms can turn to anaerobic respiration when there is no oxygen available, like yeast and some plant tissues like water-logged roots in soil. In anaerobic respiration the glucose is only partially broken down, and lactic acid is produced - together with a much smaller amount of energy. Glucose --> Lactic Acid + Energy C6H12O6 --> 2C3H6O3 + 120kJ When anaerobic respiration occurs in yeast it is called fermentation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Soon a point is reached when the body cannot breathe any faster or harder, and aerobic respiration alone cannot meet the enhanced energy demands. So muscle cells get the extra energy they need by respiring anaerobically. Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid, which accumulates in the muscles and causes muscle fatigue and cramps. To avoid damage to the cells, lactic acid is broken down to carbon dioxide and water immediately after the exercise has finished. This is an oxidisation reaction, and requires oxygen. This extra oxygen needed to neutralise the harmful effects of anaerobic respiration is called an oxygen debt. In order to get the extra oxygen to 'pay back' the debt, the body continues to breathe deeply for some time after vigorous activity has ceased. When all the lactic acid in the muscles is broken down the oxygen debt has been repaid and normal aerobic respiration resumes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of Anaerobic Respiration On Yeast

    5 star(s)

    However the effects of fermentation are permanent. Enzymes are fundamental to all metabolic pathways in respiration and anaerobic respiration, especially key in the ethanol pathway, whereby ethanal is converted to ethanol via an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase. The lock and key mechanism describes enzyme catalyzed reactions.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    'An investigation into the ability of two strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ...

    4 star(s)

    Suspend the burette in a clamp stand, ensuring that the tap is closed. This should be done in order to prevent any 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH), from being able to escape from an open valve whilst the filling of the burette is occurring.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Role of the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems in the Provision of Oxygen and ...

    3 star(s)

    regulates the chemical signals that control the heartbeat (named SCN10A), was only discovered in 2010 by researchers at Imperial College (The Telegraph, 11 Jan 2010). Blood pressure must always be at a sufficient level to allow blood to reach all tissues that require it and the carotid sinus regulates this.

  2. The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but ...

    There is only slight subjectivity with the colour change but can be interpreted very well. Advantages & Disadvantages: In this test, I found it hard to interpret the end point when using Universal Indicator but when I switched to Methyl Red, the end point became easier to establish.

  1. Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

    * Four pulmonary veins, two draining each lung, carry oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart. Reference: (Tucker Louise anatomy and physiology 1988) http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/heart/heart.shtml Website viewed on 29 / 04 / 2008 What is the systemic circulation? Systemic circulation supplies (nourishment (food)

  2. the effect of ethanol on the rate of anaerobic respiration

    Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. In the first stage, phosphorylation, glucose is phosphorylated using ATP. As glucose is energy- rich, but doesn't react easily energy must first be used to make the reaction easier. Two ATP molecules are used for each molecule of glucose to make

  1. How ATP is produced in both the chloroplast and mitochondria.

    Figure 2 shows the reactions of photosynthesis. Light is captured by chlorophyll molecules, which are associated with multiprotein complexes, called photosystems I and II. Each photosystem consists of an antenna complex and a photochemical centre. The function of the antenna complex is to funnel light energy to the photochemical reaction centre by the process of resonance energy transfer.

  2. Investigating the effects of different lead chloride concentrations on the growth of cress seedlings

    Looking at the results in the appendix proves this. Several seeds germinated but did not grow, this means that it did not have enough water to fully grow and sprout a stem. Therefore filter paper is not a good medium to use to grow cress seeds.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work