• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Respiration. There are 2 forms of respiration; Aerobic and Anaerobic.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Respiration takes place in all living things, all the time. It is a complex chemical process that oxidises food molecules, such as glucose, to carbon dioxide and water. The energy is trapped as ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) energy for living organisms to use when they need it. Examples that organisms can use ATP energy for; Growth, Repair, Movement, Biosynthesis, Locomotion, Transportation of molecules across cell membranes. Animals digest food to produce these molecules of glucose, lipids etc, which are then absorbed into the blood stream and transported around the body. Aerobic respiration is using oxygen to respire; this is mainly used by multi-cellular organisms. Oxygen is absorbed lungs, gills, or the body surface and is usually distributed around the body by the circulatory system. ...read more.

Middle

In aerobic respiration glucose reacts with oxygen in the mitochondria of the cells to release energy. Carbon dioxide and water are by-products of the reaction. Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 2900kJ Anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen, and is used by some organisms that can only respire anaerobically, such as bacteria. Some organisms can turn to anaerobic respiration when there is no oxygen available, like yeast and some plant tissues like water-logged roots in soil. In anaerobic respiration the glucose is only partially broken down, and lactic acid is produced - together with a much smaller amount of energy. Glucose --> Lactic Acid + Energy C6H12O6 --> 2C3H6O3 + 120kJ When anaerobic respiration occurs in yeast it is called fermentation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Soon a point is reached when the body cannot breathe any faster or harder, and aerobic respiration alone cannot meet the enhanced energy demands. So muscle cells get the extra energy they need by respiring anaerobically. Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid, which accumulates in the muscles and causes muscle fatigue and cramps. To avoid damage to the cells, lactic acid is broken down to carbon dioxide and water immediately after the exercise has finished. This is an oxidisation reaction, and requires oxygen. This extra oxygen needed to neutralise the harmful effects of anaerobic respiration is called an oxygen debt. In order to get the extra oxygen to 'pay back' the debt, the body continues to breathe deeply for some time after vigorous activity has ceased. When all the lactic acid in the muscles is broken down the oxygen debt has been repaid and normal aerobic respiration resumes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of Anaerobic Respiration On Yeast

    5 star(s)

    The difference between anaerobic respiration and fermentation is the ability to recover from the effects. In anaerobic respiration the lactate build up can be removed in oxygen debt. 20% is oxidized in the liver, and the remaining 80% is converted to glycogen.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    'An investigation into the ability of two strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ...

    4 star(s)

    This is arranged in order to prevent the activation period of one strain of yeast being extended, as it waited for the other to be titrated. This cannot be permitted, as it would allow more time for the waiting strain to ferment the sugar substrate, affecting the equality of the conditions and the reliability of the results obtained.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Role of the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems in the Provision of Oxygen and ...

    3 star(s)

    Several nervous and hormonal factors can affect the heart rate and blood pressure. During an increase or decrease in physical activity the heart rate can vary from 50 to 200 beats per minute and this requires careful regulation by the nervous system.

  2. The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but ...

    some preliminary work on each of the 4 tests for Pancreatitis, briefly writing up each of the tests Test 1 - Plasma Amylase With Starch: Method: Step 1 - Firstly add 5cm3 of 1% Starch to a test tube Step 2 -- Then I added 1cm3 of an Amylase sample and mixed it.

  1. Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

    * The heart is located roughly in the centre of the chest cavity. It is covered by a protective membrane. * The pericardium contraction of the ventricle then closes the tricuspid valve and forces open the pulmonary valve. * Blood flows into the pulmonary artery.

  2. the effect of ethanol on the rate of anaerobic respiration

    Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. In the first stage, phosphorylation, glucose is phosphorylated using ATP. As glucose is energy- rich, but doesn't react easily energy must first be used to make the reaction easier. Two ATP molecules are used for each molecule of glucose to make

  1. How ATP is produced in both the chloroplast and mitochondria.

    is synthesised in the chloroplasts of plants by reductive biosynthesis, using sunlight to drive the process (hence it is called photosynthesis). ATP is required by reductive biosynthesis as well, but it is synthesised by photophosphorylation - using sunlight, as the name suggests, as a source of free energy rather than the oxidation of complex molecules.

  2. Investigating the effects of different lead chloride concentrations on the growth of cress seedlings

    Since the cress seeds were distributed randomly some of the seeds might have fallen onto the dry parts of the cotton wool not allowing any growth to occur since there was no water there. Therefore cotton wool is not a suitable medium to grow cress seeds on.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work