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Revision Notes. Substances Manufactured for use in Industries. Chemicals, alloys and polymers.

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Introduction

1.1 Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid Uses of Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4, has many uses in our daily life. A few examples are: (a) Manufacture of fertilisers such as ammonium sulphate, (NH4) 2SO4 (b) Manufacture of electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators (c) Manufacture of soaps and detergents (d) Manufacture of pesticides (insecticide) (e) Manufacture of plastic items such as rayon and nylon (f) Manufacture of paints Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid in industry 1. Sulphuric acid, H2SO4, is manufactured in industry through the Contact Process. 2. The manufacturing of sulphuric acid, H2SO4, in industry involves three stages. Stage Aim Stage 1 Sulphur dioxide, SO2, gas can be produced by burning sulphur in air. S + O2 SO2 To produce sulphur dioxide, SO2, gas Stage 2 The gas mixture of sulphur dioxide and oxygen is passed over vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 (catalyst) at a temperature of 450-500 �C and under pressure of 1 atmosphere. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 To produce sulphur trioxide, SO3 gas Stage 3 Sulphur trioxide, SO3, gas is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to form oleum, H2S2O7. SO3 + H2SO4 H2S2O7 Water is then added to the oleum, H2S2O7 to dilute it to produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4. H2S2O7 + H2O 2H2SO4 To produce sulphuric acid, H2SO4 The three stages involved in the Contact process Environmental pollution by Sulphur Dioxide 1. Fossil fuels such as petrol and manufactured products of sulphuric acid, H2SO4, contain sulphur, S. ...read more.

Middle

Pure metal is soft and not very strong 2. Atoms of a pure metal have similar size and shape and are arranged closely but there is still space between atoms. 3. When force is applied to pure metals, the atoms slide along one another easily. 4. This property causes pure metals to be ductile, that is, it can be stretched into a wire. 5. When knocked or hammered, metal atoms slide along one another to fill the spaces between the metal atoms. 6. This property causes pure metal to be malleable, that is, it can be knocked or pressed into various desired shapes. Pure metal is soft and not very strong Alloy 1. An alloy is a compound formed from a mixture of metal and other elements. 2. The impurity atom (foreign atom) may be atoms of other metals or non-metals such as carbon. 3. The process or mixing atoms of impurities with atoms of pure metal by melting is called alloying. 4. The aims of alloying are to: (a) Increase the strength and hardness of the metal (b) Prevent corrosion of the metal (c) Improve the appearance of the metal so that it is more attractive Alloy Steel Stainless steel Bronze Brass Pewter Duralumin Copper Nickel Pure metal atom Main impurity atom 99% Iron 74% Iron 90% Copper 70% Copper 97% Tin 93% Aluminium 75% Copper 1% Carbon 18% Chromium, 8% Carbon 10% Tin 30% ...read more.

Conclusion

transparent (e) not permeable to gas and liquid (fluid) (f) does not conduct electricity (g) heat insulator 3. The most simple glass is the fused silica glass. This mainly contains silica, SiO2. 4. Most of the glasses are produced by mixing molten silica, SiO2, with other compounds. 5. Glass can be recycled. Glass can also be melted and solidified repeatedly. 6. Different types of glass has different uses. Type of glass Uses Fused silica glass Lenses, spectacles, laboratory glassware, ultraviolet column Soda-lime glass Bottles, glass containers, mirrors, electrical bulbs, glass windows Borosilicate glass Bowls, plates, saucers, pots, cookware, automobile headlights and laboratory glassware such as test tubes, beakers and flasks Lead crystal glass Lenses, prisms, glasses and ornamental items (crystals) Use of glass 1.6 The uses of Composite Materials 1. In this modern world, the demand for items with specific properties is high. 2. Compounds with specific properties are combined to produce a composite material that meet the requirements of industry, construction and transportation. Composite materials 1. Composite materials are produced from the combination of two or more different compounds such as alloys, metals, glass, polymers and ceramics. 2. The characteristics of the produced material are much more superior than those original components. 3. Several uses of composite materials are: (a) Reinforced concrete (b) Superconductor (c) Fibre glass (d) Fibre optics (e) Photochromic glass (f) Ceramic glass (g) Plastic strengthened with glass fibres Fibre optics ...read more.

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5 star(s)

This is a very comprehensive set of notes. It goes into a good level of detail although the science is at an intermediate level (not too difficult). It is very well written. The author uses bullet points to break the notes down into manageable, user friendly sections. Very helpful diagrams are included throughout

Overall, this piece of work is 5 stars out of 5.

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 10/04/2013

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