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rocky shore

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Introduction

Title A study of the rocky shore ecosystem Aims 1. To understand the structure and functioning of a rocky shore ecosystem. 2. To learn and practice basic ecological techniques. 3. To use simple filed equipment to measure environmental factors. 4. To identify and interpret adaptive features pertain to the rocky shore animals. Objectives 1. To measure climatic factors by means of an environmental comparator with a light probe, a whirling hygrometer, a hand-held wind meter, and a thermometer; 2. To find out the aspect of the habitat by means of a compass. 3. To determine the slope of the shore by means of the leveling technique making use of two ranging poles, a piece of cotton thread and a spirit level; 4. To measure pH of sea water on the spot; 5. To sample shore animals by means of a transect line and a quadrant; 6. To identify the adaptive features of the animals and plant species; 7. To interpret the ecological significance of these adaptive features; 8. To write an ecological field trip report based on the data collected on the field trip on the rocky shore ecosystem. Introduction Rocky shores include those marine habitats along the coastline which may be found adjacent to headlands or rocky outcrops, where there are many rocks and boulders present. Interestingly, in some areas, a wide, relatively flat shelf allows the formation of numerous small pools and crevices, which show a great fluctuation of physical conditions like salinity, water availability and temperature. This in turn reveals the distinctive adaptive features of marine organisms and I will describe some of them in the discussion part. ...read more.

Middle

53 56 76 24 45 0 60 57 45 55 46 70 30 58 51 50 47 0 100 59 94 6 48 12 88 60 100 0 A table showing the distribution and percentage of coverage of vegetation. The Rocky shores profiles Distance Gradient Distance Gradient Distance Gradient 0-1m +0.108 10-11m +0.525 20-21m -0.200 1-2m -0.095 11-12m -0.700 21-22m -0.140 2-3m -0.498 12-13m -0.245 22-23m -0.040 3-4m -0.130 13-14m +0.640 23-24m +0.170 4-5m +0.375 14-15m -0.725 24-25m 0.000 5-6m -0.615 15-16m -0.230 25-26m -0.070 6-7m +0.846 16-17m -0.135 26-27m -0.165 7-8m -0.320 17-18m -0.321 27-28m +0.105 8-9m -0.280 18-19m -0.150 28-29m +0.115 9-10m -0.620 19-20m -0.164 29-30m +0.115 Discussion Principles of the methods used in the procedures. The whirling hydrowind meter As the wet bulb is always filled with water, when water evaporates during the whirling action, the temperature on the bulb is lowered and it is lower than the dry-bulbed one. The difference between the reading of both the dry and wet one can be found out and there is a special scale(an accessory of the windmeter) that provide an easy and convenient way to check out the actual relative humidity. Sampling of animals and plants along the belt transect When it comes to study the amount and coverage area of plants of a given area, we need the technique of sampling. The meaning behind sampling is that only a small part but have significant representation of the whole with high accuracy is needed to be dealt with as it is virtually impossible to identify and count every organism in a habbit. ...read more.

Conclusion

Crab A crab shell is called a carapace and it protects its soft body from predators. Its large claws are used for catching and killing prey. Crabs have five pairs of jointed legs and they all have the power of regeneration.If a crab looses a leg it can regenerate a new one! In addition, crabs eyes are carried on stalks. They use gills for gaseous exchange and they take water in to the gill chamber under the carapace through pairs of slits near the base of their legs. Water passes out through openings in the mouth frame. As crabs grow too large for their skeleton, they moult. The skeleton splits and the crab carefully edges its way out. Its new soft skeleton is underneath. Sea anemones These interesting creatures live on the sheltered sides of rocks. They like to be protected from the hot sun and drying winds. Anemones use their tentacles to grasp their preys. The tentacles are covered with stinging cells called nematoblast which can shoot out nematocyst to paralyse their prey. In addition, the mouth is a fleshy opening in the center of the ring of tentacles. Anemones sting their prey and swallow it whole. They trap shrimp and small fish which come near. Conclusion The most noticeable thing about rocky shores is the zonation of organisms. This is common to rocky shores all over the world. The particular species of organism in each zone may vary with different climates and levels of wave and air exposure, but all show special adaptations to living in this area, and the basic structure is recognisable on most rocky shore environments. http://raymania.uhome.net/works.htm Biology Field Trip Report - The Rocky Shore by S7B Ng Wei, Ray Page 1 - The End ...read more.

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