• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Scientific theories -prokariotic origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts

Extracts from this document...


My chosen theory is the prokaryotic origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts. This theory explains that mitochondria and chloroplasts which are found in eukaryotic cells evolved from their prokaryotic ancestors. There is another theory which is membrane infolding. There is very little evidence to support this theory. The theory I have chosen explains how mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from bacteria and there is evidence that strongly suggests this. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are different to other membrane enclosed organelles in containing there own single chromosome which is called genome. The nature of these genomes, and close resemblance of the proteins in these organelles to those in some present-day bacteria, strongly suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from bacteria that were engulfed by other cells with which they initially lived in symbiosis. The inner membrane of mitochondria and chloroplasts corresponds to the original plasma membrane of the bacterium, while the lumen of these organelles evolved from the bacterial cytosol. As might be expected from such an endocytic origin, these two organelles are surrounded by a double membrane, no vesicles attach to these organelles like they attach to the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi body, which connects the interiors of most of the other membrane-enclosed organelles to each other and to the outside cell. ...read more.


One group of primitive eukaryotes lacks mitochondria, ER and Golgi body. Perceptions task 2. Two questions that science is currently addressing are: That germ grabbing magnetic beads that can be pulled from the blood. This involves using a magnetic field to literally pull sepsis, which is a potentially lethal blood infection what can lead to multiple-organ failure, out of the blood. It works by using micron-sized magnetic beads to filter pathogens out of the blood of septic patents. The beads are coated with an antibody that binds to sepsis-causing bacteria or fungi mix with blood drawn from a patient. After the antibody-coated magnets have bound with the pathogens, they are pulled via a magnetic field into a saline solution that flows alongside the blood and sweeps them away. In tests using 10-20ml of blood 80 % of pathogens were removed. The human race isn't just upsetting the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere but nitrogen as well. Although the burning of fossil fuels is known to release nitrogen oxides that can excessively fertilize ecosystems or react with other compounds to form smog and acid rain, researchers have had difficulty pinpointing the extent to which people have disrupted nitrogen levels ...read more.


And whether any of those planets are inhabited. They are able to recognise whether the planet is possible to inhabit life by recognising what gases are in that planets atmosphere. How big the universe actually is because if they managed to build a space shuttle that could travel very far with human life on there how are they going to know that they have come to the end of the universe is there going to be a brick wall, if there is what is on the other side of that brick wall? A) New advances in the scientific community are made known to the scientific community by a research paper being written and then either being sent to be published in a journal or presented in a conference then it is either being checked by another scientist if sent to be published or the paper is published in the conference records then if the paper is correct the paper is published then other scientists repeat the experiment to check its validility. B) New scientific advances are made known to the public by the television on the new because if it's a breakthrough then they want to let people know straight away.. they also use newspapers and certain scientific websites. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Applied Science

    Carbonic acid then dissociates to form hydrogen carbonate and hydrogen ions that increase the acidity of the blood. Vigorous exercise means that actively respiring cells, particularly skeletal muscle cells do not have enough oxygen available to catabolic glucose for energy production.

  2. The Origin of the Mitochondrion.

    This must have evolved when sexual reproduction using cells such as gametes became prevalent in eukaryotes. Both of these mechanisms must have been important throughout the evolution of the mitochondria in cells, since host nuclei lack the genetic potential for forming new mitochondria (Lang et al.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work