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Spring Investigation

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Introduction

Spring Investigation Aim The aim is to find out the factors that affect the stretching of a spring. Prediction From Hooke's law we know that as long as loads are not used which would cause the spring to approach its elastic limit the extension of a spring is proportional to the load acting on it. This equation: extension =Y x (original length) x load cross-sectional area states that if we increase the cross-sectional area and keep the same original length, the extension will be less with any given load. I will apply this knowledge that the thinner the wire the more it will extend with the same load than a thicker wire would. I think this because the theoretical equation along with Hookes law state that this is what would happen. Here is an example of what the results should look like. Trial run For the trial run I decided to use a diameter of 10mm for the coil and to use 100g masses. This did not work as the springs with a 36swg, 32swg, and 28swg just went straight to the floor. On the basis of what I have tried out I decided to use a 5mm diameter for the coil and 10g masses. Method .Set up equipment as shown in diagram. .Make five Nichrome springs with a 20swg, 24swg, 28swg, 32swg and 36swg all with hooks at each end. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus * Clamp stand: To hold the spring and the metre stick. * Metre stick: To record the results. * 5 springs: To carry out the investigation with. * 10g masses: To extend the springs. Plan of action First of all we set up the equipment as shown in the diagram, then we made the springs by wrapping all of the five different widths of Nichrome wire round a core of five millimetres each with a hook at both ends. Starting with the 20swg we hooked it onto the clamp stand and lined the metre stick up with the bottom of the spring at 200 millimetres so it would be easier to record the results. Once we had done all the above we started to add on the 10g masses one by one until the spring went past the elastic region. We did this with each wire recording the extension to the nearest millimetre every time a 10g mass was added. Fair test To make this a fair test I will ensure that each gauge of wire is a metre long, that I record the results to the nearest millimetre and that I use the same diameter for each spring. Swg Newtons (N) Reading (mm) Total extension (cm) 36 0 0.1 0.2 Went past the elastic limit 200 905 962 0 705 762 32 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Went past the elastic limit 200 278 410 505 0 78 ...read more.

Conclusion

To get a better set of results I could have made the test a lot more fair, for example: extra length for the hook, measure the extension of the spring with an object instead of by eye, even up the coils on each spring taking care that there are no gaps. To extend this particular investigation I could repeat the experiment with a variety of metals. The different metals would probably have a different extension with the same weight. A use of this would be that different metals would be more suitable for different tasks whether as individual components or as part of a working machine. Conclusion I have concluded that the thickness of the wire does affect the stretching of a spring. Therefore the thicker the wire the larger the mass has to be for it to extend then a thinner wire. Diagrams The diagrams above show the stretching of a spring when in the elastic region. The molecules slip and slide over each other as the weight is applied, this causes the spring to extend. As the weights are taken off the molecules slide back to their original position. However when the spring enters the plastic region by an increase in the load it produces a much bigger extension then before. This causes internal slipping to take place between the layers of atoms and is called plastic deformation. The spring will not return to its original position. ...read more.

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