• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month


Extracts from this document...


STEM CELLS, ORGAN DONATION AND ORGAN FAILURE THE PROBLEM In the modern world, many issues concern society; one such issue is the unavailability of adequate organ donations. Hospitals cannot meet the increasing demands for an organ transplant, that is why there is such a big gap between organs available and the number of people who need an organ transplant. In the United States alone, 108,000 people are on the waiting list for an organ transplanti. Spain has the highest organ donation rate in the world, yet there is only 34 donors per millionii; this would explain the shortfall, but if we look more in depth, we find that many things are a hindrance to organ transplantation, such as failure to find a match or the poor condition of the organ. In this report, I will analyse solutions to the problem of organ shortage and the benefits and risks of my solution. BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES Biologists have come up with an ingenious plan to dramatically reduce the organ transplant waiting list and find an answer to organ failure. This process is known as therapeutic cloning and it is understood that clinical manipulation of this system of practice will guarantee a revolutionary multi billion pound industry, catering for the needs of thousands, if not millions of recipients annually. The biological process which is comprised of this system is quite easy to understand and a simple step by step diagram is portrayed in Figure 1. ...read more.


Another ethical issue is that many religious people see the exploitation of stem cells by scientists as trying to 'play God'. BENEFITS AND RISKS BENEFITS a) A big problem that doctors come across, during transplants of other kinds, such as animal organ transplants, is rejection of foreign cells by the immune system, however, as I stated earlier, using a patient's own stem cell means that there is no chance of rejection by the immune system. Adverse effects that would have occurred, had it been another person's cells that were used, is reduced or even altogether stopped. vii b) An alternative use of stem cells is that they can be used to cure many diseases. An estimate states that around 100 million Americans may benefit from stem cell therapiesviii. Cardiovascular diseases accounts for half of the deaths in developed countries; a majority of cardiovascular diseases start with a myocardial infarction (heart attack), due to the death of muscles surrounding the heart; bone marrow or foetal liver stem cells can be used to regenerate the dead muscles surrounding the heart and can ultimately improve the levels of rich blood reaching the heart, thus preventing any further damages or diseases occurringix. Furthermore, stem cells can also cure other detrimental diseases, for example type 1 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. Scientists have been able to coerce stem cells into cells which are able to produce insulinx; scientists have also been using genetic engineering methods to induce stem cells into becoming functional insulin producing cells. ...read more.


written on Wikipedia.com is not peer assessed, so there may be many flaws in the data given and people may not realise this. The book 'Fundamentals of the stem cell debate: the scientific, religious, ethical, and political issues', in my opinion is extremely valid. The book assisted me in expressing the remedial effects of stem cells on many diseases, so it answered my problem partially. I would say that the book was quite reliable because it was written by more than one expert in the field of stem cells, hence mistakes would be minimised and similar information would have been produced by other people who are also professionals in the same field as people in similar fields have the same concept and ideas concerning an area of science. BIBILIOGRAPHY i http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_donation (organ shortfall section) ii http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_donation (legislation section) iii http://www.biosci.missouri.edu/kirk/links/cloning.html (some info was also attained from the Edexcel AS Biology Student Book - by Anne Fullick) ivhttp://www.organdonation.nhs.uk/ukt/statistics/calendar_year_statistics/calendar_year_statistics.jsp v http://www.religioustolerance.org/clo_ther.htm vi http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/TherapeuticCloning.html vii http://cord-blood-cells.com/disadvantages-of-stem-cell-research.html viii Fundamentals of the stem cell debate: the scientific, religious, ethical, and political issues. Page: 37 By Kristen R. Monroe, Ronald Baker Miller, Jerome S. Tobis ix Fundamentals of the stem cell debate: the scientific, religious, ethical, and political issues. Page: 45 x Fundamentals of the stem cell debate: the scientific, religious, ethical, and political issues. Page: 43 xi Fundamentals of the stem cell debate: the scientific, religious, ethical, and political issues. Page: 37 xii http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/StemCellsAndAging.html xiii http://animalrights.about.com/od/vivisection/a/StemCell.htm xiv http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/article6417499.ece xv http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/859959.stm xvihttp://news.bbc.co.uk/democracylive/hi/house_of_commons/newsid_8571000/8571055.stm ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    "To Clone or Not to Clone- That is the Question".

    4 star(s)

    This activates the creation of an embryo as well. If the embryo actually survives, it is led to grow in a sheep's oviduct for around six days, as it is proven that embryo's are more likely to survive if developed in their own environment rather than in a lab.

  2. Applied Science

    For instance, if red blood cells are placed in distilled water which is hypotonic to them, water will diffuse into cells and they will bust.

  1. Stem cells: how is stem cell research carried out, and its benefits to medicine

    Entire organs could be grown and subjected to doses of drugs undergoing medical trials to examine their effects on organs of the body. This would reduce the risk to humans undergoing unsafe trials, in which adverse reactions occur. This would also reduce the costs imposed on drug companies as the

  2. Free essay

    Cells and organ systems in the human body.

    Similar tissues group together to make organs. Organs Organs are collections of tissues joined to function similarly. Organs can contain different types of tissue. A collection of organs make up the organ system which is the next level of the body. The muscle is an organ which consists of tissues made up of cells that are specialised in movement and contraction.

  1. Spreadsheet report

    sparklers 200 �0.65 �0.91 �0.26 �130.00 80 Sweets 900 �0.80 �1.12 �0.32 �720.00 400 T-shirts 250 �3.00 �4.20 �1.20 �750.00 60 Albums 900 �4.60 �6.44 �1.84 �4,140.00 60 Singles 200 �1.89 �2.65 �0.76 �378.00 45 Jewellery 140 �2.00 �2.80 �0.80 �280.00 40 Total �7,540.00 The first (in stock record)

  2. The Science of Stem Cells

    The first potential applications of human embryonic stem cell technology may be in the area of drug discovery. The ability to grow pure populations of specific cell types offers a proving ground for chemical compounds that may have medical importance.

  1. Cell death during embryogenesis

    How apoptosis works on the cellular level is not well understood, but it is known to take about three hours to complete. The vast majority of the cells are in the Go, nonproliferating phase of the cell cycle. A specific set of transcription factors is activated from the highly conserved Hox gene family in cells undergoing apoptosis.

  2. Human Cloning

    of illnesses'.5 What this means is that patients can be given therapeutic treatment without any human embryos being used or destroyed. That is very helpful news, isn't it? Moreover, one big problem is where would the eggs come from? It is estimated that it will take "100 eggs if you're lucky" to produce a useable stem cell line.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work