• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Stereochemistry of Butenedioic acid

Extracts from this document...


Name: Tonny, Chan Kar Yu, Student ID: 10297729 Date of Experiment: 19th February 2005, Group: B1 Title: Stereochemistry of Butenedioic acid Objective: To study the interconversion of two geometric isomers, maleic acid (cis isomer) to fumaric acid (trans isomers), the differences in physical properties between this pair of cis-trans isomers and determine the stereochemistry of addition of bromine to butenedioic acid. Chemicals and Apparatus: 2 grams of maleic acid, 10 cm3 of concentrated hydrochloric acid, 10 cm3 of bromine water1, one 50 cm3 beaker, one 100 cm3 beaker, one 250 cm3 beaker, one 10 cm3 measuring cylinder, one piece of spatula, one piece of water glass, one glass rod, a few pieces of filter paper, a set of Buchner funnel, a filter flask with side tube, three glass capillary tubes, a set of melting point apparatus, one long hollow glass tubing, one electronic balance, one heater and the oven Background: Stereochemistry is always encountered throughout organic chemistry. And stereochemistry isomerism can be divided into two classes, geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism. Although these categories are not mutually exclusive, it is not uncommon to find compounds that exhibit only one or the other of the two types. Most geometrical isomers result from cyclic systems or restricted rotation about double bonds. The preparation of fumaric acid by isomerization of maleic acid and addition of molecular bromine to fumaric acid was illustrated in the experiment. Geometric isomers can be interconverted if the double bond is temporarily converted to a single bond, about which rotation is relatively free. ...read more.


3. White precipitates would be formed after 10 minutes and the colour of the mixture would be turned to light yellow. If the solution became colourless as it was being heated, a few milliliters of the bromine solution was added. 4. The solution was removed from the heat and cooled in an ice bath. 5. The product was collected by suction filtration as the setup in part A. The crystals was washed about 1 cm3 of cold water and dried the crystals by drawing air through them for a few minutes. 6. The crystals was transferred into a weighed watch glass and dried in an oven at about 120 for 10 minutes. 7. The dried crystals of 2,3-dibromosuccinic acid was weighed. 8. The melting points of two isomers were measured and recorded using the electrical melting point apparatus. Results: A. Conversion of maleic acid to fumaric acid Mass of maleic acid used = 2.004 g Mass of fumaric acid used = 1.651 g Percentage yield Melting point of maleic acid: 138 Melting point of fumaric acid: 254 B. Addition of Bromine to Fumaric Acid Mass of fumaric acid used = 1.001 g Mass of 2,3-dibromosuccinic acid(dried) = 1.3858 g Percentage yield = no. of mole of C4H4O4Br2 / no of mole of C4H4O4 Melting point of 2,3-drbromosuccinic acid: 255 Discussion: Geometrical isomer is a stereomer which is superposable with its own mirror image. However, a pair of diastereomers is not mirror images of each other. ...read more.


When the small beaker in the water bath was removed, we MUST not place it in the ice water immediately because it is very dangerous as the beaker would crack and the solution will bounce out. We should cool the solution to room temperature and then place it to ice water to make the solution much saturated. The solubility of fumaric acid is much insoluble than maleic acid since there is no net dipole moment in fumaric acid. When placing the beaker in the lower temperature environment, more fumaric crystal would be formed by saturation. Conclusion: In the experiment, we had to make sure that all water was evolved from the sample and all remaining substance was pure, otherwise, the percentage yield in the result would become meaningless. Hazards The whole experiment part B had to process in the fume cupboard as bromine gas is toxic and has strong disagreeable odor, and having a very irritating effect on the eyes and throat. Maleic acid is a strong toxic; we have to use gloves while handling this compound and concentration hydrochloric acid is corrsive. Avoid contact them with face and hands. Solid compounds from the experiment should be placed into the appropriate labeled waste jars in the side hood. 1 The stock solution of bromine water was prepared by dissolving 232.5 g of Br2 and 187.5 g KBr in water and diluting to about 750 ml. ?? ?? ?? ?? College Chemistry (250-06) Tonny, Chan Kar Yu Laboratory Report Group: B1, Student ID: 10297729 - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

5 star(s)

A very high level account of isomerism. This goes into much detail and is explained beautifully. There are some answers to commonly asked questions at the end of the report

Overall, this report is 5 stars out of 5.

Marked by teacher Brady Smith 10/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Heat of Neutralization. Objective: To investigate the ...

    5 star(s)

    Two burettes were filled with ~1.0M alkali solution and 1.0M acid respectively with filter funnels and the tips of the burettes were drained, then the initial burette readings were labeled and recorded. 3. The specific volume of the alkali solution was drained in to the dry polystyrene foam cup

  2. Law of conservation of matter lab report.The chemical reaction used to research is: ...

    40.3 40.5 5 67.4 27.2 94.6 94.6 Average mass of the product formed, i.e., experimental yield � 0.1= 59.2grams �0.1 Average of the actual calculated mass of the product = 59.5grams Graphical representation: Calculations: * Trail 1: 7.8+19.3=27.1 * Trail 2: 15.5+38.5=54 * Trail 3: 23.3+57.8=81.1 * Trail 4: 11.6+28.9=40.5

  1. Preparation of Standard solution and Standardization of Hydrochloric acid

    standard solution made also have relatively high purity .This can prevent the impurities in the solution from reacting with the chemical to be titrated (e.g. HCL (aq)) If impurities are present, side reactions may take place and other new chemicals, which is undesirable in that experiment, will be produced .Eventually,

  2. Determination of isoelectric point of protein (casein).

    In order to measure the turbidity of each solution by using the calorimeter, the 9 samples from each of the test tubes were poured into 9 curvettes destined for the calorimeter and labelled accordingly. 11. One curvette was filled with distilled water which acts as a marker for zero turbidity.

  1. Investigation to analyse some fruit and vegetable juices for the contents present in them.

    Concentrated Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) 9. Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH) 10. Alkaline copper sulphate (CuSO4 + NaOH) 11. Aqueous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) A. Fruit juices that were analysed :- (i) Apple (ii) Coconut B. Vegetable juices that were analysed :- (i) Tomato The various experiments and tests performed under the project gave qualitative analysis to find the presence of various organic

  2. Importance of Laboratory Design

    * Keep the electrical equipment away from water. * Use fumes visor sunglasses protection and gloves. * All the sharps appropriate security - protection (needles, razors, pins) should be discarded in a solid container. A safe laboratory environment can be achieved only if the laboratory design is purposefully designed for safety and health standards.

  1. How are standard solutions prepared & how is titration carried out in industry

    The big differences between the industry and the class room titration experiments is that in industry they could use machinery which is able to deliver the amount of reactant which is needed and also the equipment which is used to perform the process itself.

  2. Compare the techniques and methods I used to measure the purity of a sample ...

    This would infer my results. Titration This technique could have a few human errors included which would affect the accuracy of the results obtained. The errors which could possibly occur: If the burette and beakers are not rinsed each time they use a different substance, there is a high chance of contamination.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work