• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Structure and Functions of Collagen and Insulin.

Extracts from this document...


Structure and Functions of Collagen and Insulin Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insulin decreases the levels of glucose in the blood and regulates the metabolism of glucose, fats and proteins. In order to meet the demand for insulin needed by diabetics, the hormone is mass-produced with the aid of genetically engineered bacteria, but can also be taken from pigs and cattles. The structures of insulin and proinsulin are given below. Proinsulin is a single polypeptide chain of 86 amino acids that permits correct alignment of three pairs of disulfide bonds. The C-peptide of proinsulin is depicted as open circles. ...read more.


An insulin-specific protease and glutathione-insulin transdehydrogenase are involved. The latter reduces the disulfide bonds with separation of A and B chains, which are subjected to rapid proteolysis. About one quarter of all of the protein in your body is collagen. Collagen is a major structural protein, forming molecular cables that strengthen the tendons and vast, resilient sheets that support the skin and internal organs. Bones and teeth are made by adding mineral crystals to collagen. Collagen provides structure to our bodies, protecting and supporting the softer tissues and connecting them with the skeleton. But, in spite of its critical function in the body, collagen is a relatively simple protein. ...read more.


The reaction requires vitamin C to assist in the addition of oxygen. Unfortunately, we cannot make vitamin C within our bodies, and if we don't get enough in our diet, the results can be disastrous. Vitamin C deficiency slows the production of hydroxyproline and stops the construction of new collagen, ultimately causing scurvy. The symptoms of scurvy--loss of teeth and easy bruising-- are caused by the lack of collagen to repair the wear-and-tear caused by everyday activities. Collagen from livestock animals is a familiar ingredient for cooking. Like most proteins, when collagen is heated, it loses all of its structure. The triple helix unwinds and the chains separate. Then, when this denatured mass of tangled chains cools down, it soaks up all of the surrounding water like a sponge, forming gelatine. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Electrochemical Cells

    5 star(s)

    x Cables & Crocodile Clips * Strips of Copper & Zinc * Emery Paper * Filter Paper * Copper (II) Sulphate, 1 mol dm-3 * Zinc Sulphate, 1mol dm-3 * Potassium Nitrate, saturated * Thermometer * Scales Risk Assessment[5] Substance Hazard Description Precautions/Disposal Copper (II)

  2. Investigating the Rate of the Reaction between Bromide and Bromate Ions in Acid Solution

    Similarly for the phenol; since the experiment measures the amount of time for all the phenol to have reacted, if there was slightly too much phenol in the reacting mixture, the reaction could have taken longer to change colour, leading to an anomaly.

  1. Investigating how concentration affects rate of reaction

    1000 = 0.2975g dissolved in enough distilled water to make 250ml of solution. Risk Assessment (6) The following risk assessments are based on concentrated solutions of each substance. The concentrations I will be using are much more diluted that the solutions mentioned below to ensure that my experiment is safer.

  2. Structure and function of lipids in plants and animals

    The fat-soluble substances associate with the fat-soluble portions of phospholipids and they can cross the membrane, while the water-soluble substances are restricted of transport by the hydrophobic tails. They therefore have to be left to the protein carriers to transport them.

  1. Identification of amino acids by chromatography.

    In some places the concentration of purple remains constant for as long as 5cms, making it hard to see where each amino acid reading is and so impossible to be fully accurate on the identification. To check the accuracy of the results, the results can be referred to Table 1.

  2. Comparisons between the structure and function of collagen and insulin.

    Some the amino acids form a ring to force to become a triple helix and stop it from forming a secondary structure where as insulin is a chain and does not need to do this, the structure of collagen can be changed in diseases like scurvy, which is a lack

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work