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Study the increasing cases of food allergies and intolerances in an attempt to establish what factors could be responsible for the rising number of sufferers.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Diabetes Mellitus By Hollie Scorer Introduction & Hypothesis (1.0) My original research proposal was to study the increasing cases of food allergies and intolerances in an attempt to establish what factors could be responsible for the rising number of sufferers. Whilst conducting my initial research I found resources such as scientific studies were very limited, which would have considerably impaired my investigation. I took the decision to change my research subject to diabetes mellitus as this subject is of personal interest to me and the resources and literature on diabetes is vast. Firstly I will give a medical explanation as to why we get diabetes, what it exactly is, the symptoms it causes and how scientists discovered the treatment. I will be using two diabetes sufferers as case studies, conducting in-depth telephone interviews. Initially I distributed questionnaires to be completed by the general public in order to gather information, my findings were inept and I was unable to use my results to prove or disprove my hypothesis. I therefore have made the decision to conduct two in depth case studies. Although my case studies will provide me with detailed information, case studies are time consuming so I will only be able to perform two, which will reduce my comparison availability. Case study one suffers from insulin-dependent diabetes and case study two suffers with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. I will interview both subjects extensively in order to establish their past and present medical history, lifestyle, social background and vital statistics. I will then present my data and analyse the significance of my findings and conclude if my hypothesis was proved or disproved. I hypothesise that my case study one and two's diabetes related health complaints i.e. excess thirst and urinating would be reduced if they were to make nutritional alterations to their current diet. What is Diabetes? (1.2) One of the pancreases functions is to monitor the level of blood glucose. ...read more.

Middle

When the blood sugar level exceeds the kidneys ability to reabsorb glucose from its ultrafiltrate it results in excessive loss of free water, glycosuria, and the elimination excessive glucose in the urine. Increased thirst and increased frequency and volume of urination is frequently associated with hyperglycemia. With the absence of insulin lipolysis is increased, as fatty acids are released from the adipose tissue they provide an alternative energy source to glucose, but when excessive amounts of these fatty acids are released, the liver produces ketone bodies. As the body has a limited capacity to metabolize ketone bodies as an energy source, excess ketone bodies accumulate in the blood and are excreated in the urine. The production of increased amounts ketosis can cause metabolic acidos. Although serum glucose levels are elevated, insulin must be present for the cellular uptake of glucose to occur. In insulin dependent diabetes the cells are in a starved state that causes an increase in appetite. As serum glucose levels and ketone bodies rise, the renal threshold is overwhelmed and the glucose and ketones are lost in the urine. Thus individuals with recent onset diabetes experience rapid weight loss. Nutritional Analysis of Paul's Diet Prior to Diagnosis (7.0) Nutritional analysis is an essential role in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recommendations for a revised meal plan must be individualized to meet his needs and be flexible enough in order for Paul to continue with his current lifestyle, with minimal disruption. In order to meet the needs of Paul's nutritional requirements I will need to bare in mind his social, economical situation, current lifestyle, ethnic or religious considerations, daily schedule, meal frequency, meals and snacks eaten away from the home and his physical activity level. Calculating Paul's Daily Calorie and Nutritional Requirements and Recommending Dietary Alterations (7.1) I am going to calculate Paul's daily calorie intake requirements using his height, weight and level of activity. From my calculations Paul should be consuming approximately 2740 calories per day. ...read more.

Conclusion

As I am not a qualified practitioner it would be unsafe for me to implement changes on Jeremy's diet. So I am unable to prove or disprove my hypothesis that diabetes related health complaints i.e. excess thirst and urinating would be reduced if they were to make nutritional alterations to their current diet. However it is well documented that glucose levels can be controlled to an optimal level if the correct diet is implemented, with this I am able to conclude that if Jeremy reduced his fat and calorie intake he would lose weight, he would feel well, he's blood sugar levels would stabilise, he's excess need to urinate would decrease and he would have far more energy if Jeremy continues with his current lifestyle he as at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Index 1.0- Introduction and Hypothesis 1.2- What is diabetes? 2.0- Symptoms and type of diabetes 3.0- How the treatment for diabetes was discovered 4.0- Estimated diagnosed diabetes by type and country for the UK 5.0- Case study one before diagnosis 5.1- Symptoms suffered previous to diagnosis 5.2- Past medical history 5.3- Family history 5.4- Social history 5.5- Vital statistics 6.0- Prior to diagnosis Paul's usual food diary- 24 hour period 6.1- Nutritional information 6.2- Diagnoses 6.3- Medical explanation for Paul's symptoms of fatigue, increased thirst, excess need to urinate and weight loss despite a good appetite 7.0- Nutritional analysis of Paul's diet prior to diagnosis 7.1- Calculating Paul's daily calorie and nutritional requirements and recommending dietary alterations 8.0- Should Paul be encouraged to exercise? 8.1- Should Paul continue to drink alcohol? 8.2- Sample revised meal plan for Paul 9.0- Case study two after diagnosis 9.1- Past medical history 9.2- Family history 9.3- Social history 9.4- Vital statistics 9.5- Jeremy's food diary- 24 hour period 9.6- Nutritional information 10.0- Jeremy's ideal body weight 10.1- Revised calorie intake 10.2- Nutritional guidelines for Jeremy 11.0- Analysis of Jeremy's current diet 11.1- Food alterations to reduce calorie and fat intake 11.2- Additional lifestyle changes 12.0- Conclusion 13. ...read more.

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