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# Sulphuric Acid investigation evaluation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Analysis: Weight of weighing bottle 7.61g Weight of weighing bottle + anhydrous sodium carbonate 10.26g Mass of weighing bottle (after reweighing when empty) 7.61g Mass of solid anhydrous sodium Carbonate 2.65g Sodium Carbonate Solution: 250 cm3 of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) Number of moles = mass Ar Mass: 2.65g of sodium carbonate Mr: Na =23g C=12g O=16g Ar of Na2CO3 = (23x2) + (12) + (16x3) = 106g Number of moles = 2.65g 106g = 0.025 moles in 250 cm3 of sodium carbonate Volume = 250 = 0.25 dm3 1000 Concentration (mol/dm3) = Amount in moles of solute Volume (dm3) Concentration of Na2CO3 = 0.025 = 0.1 mol/dm3 0.25 Titration Results: Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O Approximate Accurate 1 2 3 Final burette reading 25.50 25.50 25.50 25.50 Initial burette reading 0 0 0 0 Titre 25.50 25.50 25.50 25.50 As my results were all the same, the Average Titre = 25.50 cm3 This means that 25.50 cm3 of sulphuric acid neutralises 25 cm3 of my sodium carbonate solution. ...read more.

Middle

However, this doesn't ensure that I used exactly 25cm3. This also applies for the volumetric flask. When making up the initial 250cm3 sodium carbonate solution, you cannot exceed the 250cm3 line; otherwise you cannot determine the correct number of moles in you solution. There may have been some errors in making up the solution to the line as it is difficult to determine whether the meniscus is on the line. This may mean that the concentration of the sodium carbonate solution is more dilute or more concentrated than what I calculated * The stand for my burette doesn't ensure the burette is completely straight. This could affect the readings for my solution if the meniscus isn't straight. . * The apparatus I use limits the accuracy of my experiment. Percentage uncertainty calculations enable me to evaluate how accurate/inaccurate my apparatus was. Percentage Uncertainty calculations: I can measure the percentage uncertainty of the following equipment I used: 1. Digital scale / Balance 2. Volumetric flask 3. Pipette 4. Burette 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Taking readings from a burette can be difficult as it is clear. To reduce the risk of misreading the volume, I would place a white piece of paper behind the burette, making it easier to see the meniscus. * As the stoichiometry of the reaction in my experiment was one to one, it is vital that all the sodium carbonate dissolved in the solution, allowing me to correctly calculate concentration and the number of moles. Therefore, I would heat the sodium carbonate solution using a Bunsen burner to ensure the entire solid is dissolved. I would then allow the solution to cool before transferring it to the volumetric flask. * In my experiment, I need to record the exact volume of sulphuric acid needed to neutralise the sodium carbonate solution. Therefore, noticing when my solution is neutralised is vital. To determine the colour change to a greater accuracy, I would use a colorimeter, which allows the absorbance of a solution at a particular frequency of visual light to be determined. This piece of apparatus would help me to know when the end point of experiment has been reached, when neutralisation occurs. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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