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Sulphuric Acid investigation

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Introduction

Aim: The aim of my investigation is to calculate the unknown concentration of a given sulphuric (Vl) acid. When a metal is extracted from its ore, one by-product is sulphur dioxide, which can be used to make more useful by-products such as sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid has a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15mol dm-3. I will determine the unknown concentration by using a titration to then find out how much acid is in the solution. Using a solution with a known concentration can only do this. The solution that I will be reacting with the sulphuric acid is sodium carbonate. The reaction between sodium carbonate and sulphuric acid will be a neutralisation reaction, forming a soluble salt, water and carbon dioxide: Na2CO3 + H2SO4 � Na2SO4+ CO2+H2O Acids and Bases: The Br�nsted-Lowry theory characterises an acid as a proton donor that donates H+ ions, whereas a base is proton acceptor, it accepts H+ ions. Strong acids and bases are substances that completely dissociates in an aqueous solution. This means they form ions easily in water. In dilute solutions they are made entirely of ions. Weak acids and bases are substances that form solutions that are partially in the form of ions. pH: pH stands for the power of hydrogen. It is the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. ...read more.

Middle

The pink solution is made colourless when hydroxide ions are added. These ions remove the hydrogen ions, changing the equilibrium. Choosing the appropriate indicator for my titration experiment. In my experiment I will be adding a strong acid to a weak base. The two indicators that I could use for my experiment are methyl orange and phenolphthalein. Their ranges are plotted on the graph below with the titration curve for my reaction. The equivalence point of a titration is where the two substances have mixed in exact proportions. The best indicator for a reaction is the indicator that changes colour as close as possible to that equivalence point. From the graph it is clear that I cannot decide which indicator is best by comparing it to the equivalence point. This is because it is virtually the same volume of acid added for both, as the graph is very steep in that region. As Methyl Orange is commonly used in titration experiments, this is the indicator I am going to use. Because methyl orange is slightly acidic, I am going to add only 3 drops to my solution, to prevent the indicator affecting my result too much. This also means I must stop my titration as soon as the indicator colour changes. Apparatus: * Anhydrous sodium carbonate * Weighing bottle * Glass rod * Sulphuric acid * Distilled Water * 250 cm3 conical flask * 250 cm3 volumetric flask + ...read more.

Conclusion

to add, so that when the real attempts are done they can be done quicker as you can add a certain amount of acid with no colour change. It also gives you a practice to get used to the equipment) 15) Read off final value on burette at eye level. 16) Wash out conical flask using distilled water and repeat titration. Once there are concordant titres, which are the same or are within 0.1cm3 of each other, no more repeats will need to be done. Risk Assessment: * Sulphuric is a strong toxic and corrosive acid. Protective eyewear must be worn throughout experiment. If the acid comes in contact with skin wash skin with plenty of water. * Sodium Carbonate is a weak base, which is slightly corrosive. Care should be taken if it comes in contact with skin and should be washed off with water. * Ensure all equipment is placed away form the edges of the tables to avoid accidents. If any glass is broken, clean it immediately to prevent injuries. * Long hair should be tied up so it does not restrict vision or come in contact with harmful substances. * Carry all the chemicals carefully to avoid spillages. Methyl orange indicator will stain clothes and sulphuric acid and sodium carbonate are irritants. * Any coats and bags should be placed away from the work station so people don't trip over them. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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