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Temperature and Rate of Reaction

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Introduction

Does the change in temperature affect the rate of reaction? Introduction: In this investigation I will explore the chemical reaction of hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. I will be analysing how long it takes for the reaction to take place at different temperatures. Chemical reaction reactions are affected by different factors, such as concentration, temperature and volume. These will need to be taken into consideration when conducting the experiment. Preliminary Tests: Before I could carry out the experiment, I needed to carry out a preliminary test. The reason for this was so I could find a sensible concentration to use. I decided that any temperature above 60�C would be too dangerous. I then needed to find a concentration of sodium thiosulphate which would give me enough time to measure how long the reaction takes. If the concentration is too high, the reaction at 60�C will happen too quickly. If the concentration is too low, then the reaction at the lowest temperature (20�C) will take too long. I carried out the preliminary test as similar as possible to how I planned to do the investigation. First I poured 20cm3 of hydrochloric acid (which I had warmed to 60�C using a water bath) into a beaker. ...read more.

Middle

0.03, 0.06, 0.11, 0.18, 0.25, 0.33, 0.41, 0.54, 0.63, 0.73, 0.84, 0.99, 1.16, 1.28, 1.40, 1.65, 1.88, 2.00. 0.01, 0.04, 0.08, 0.13, 0.18, 0.24, 0.32, 0.38, 0.48, 0.57, 0.67, 0.78, 0.90, 0.99. 1.12. 1.24. 1.38. 1.49. 1.64. 1.76. 1.90. 2.00. 40 0.04, 0.04, 0.05, 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.09, 0.13, 0.16, 0.22, 0.28, 0.35, 0.43, 0.54, 0.62, 0.75, 0.90, 1.04, 1.17, 1.36, 1.52, 1.71, 1.88, 2.00. 0.09, 0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.11, 0.13, 0.17, 0.22, 0.29, 0.38, 0.49, 0.65, 0.78, 0.95, 1.14, 1.32, 1.50, 1.78, 2.00. 50 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, 0.05, 0.04, 0.05, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, 0.13, 0.20, 0.31, 0.45, 0.63, 0.83, 1.07, 1.32, 1.59, 1.92, 2.00. 0.02, 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.15, 0.28, 0.46, 0.68, 0.91, 1.26, 1.67, 2.00. 60 0.02, 0.02, 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.15, 0.31, 0.57, 0.87, 1.27, 1.71, 2.00. 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, 0.07, 0.17, 0.33, 0.56, 0.85, 1.22, 1.68, 2.00. Temperature (�C) 1st Attempt (sec.) 2nd Attempt (sec.) 3rd Attempt, if needed (sec.) 20 97 82 80 30 88 49 55 40 37 36 50 29 23 60 19 20 It is apparent that for the first two temperatures the experiment was repeated for a 3rd time. The reason for this was because after doing the experiment twice, the results were not very similar. ...read more.

Conclusion

I solved this problem by keeping a thermometer in the test tubes and putting the bottom of the test tube under cold running water from the tap. When the temperature reached 20 C, I quickly and carefully poured them into the cuvette, before the temperature rose again. There were two anomalous results from the investigation. Because of this, I repeated the experiment, and ignored the incorrect results. One aspect of the investigation which was not very reliable was making sure the temperature was correct when starting the reaction. It was a bigger problem with low temperatures, as the chemicals were more prone to a change in temperature over a short amount of time, i.e. the time taken to transfer the chemicals from the test tubes to the cuvette. I did not realise this when doing the experiment, so did not start the reaction as soon as the desired temperature was reached. This may have been the reason for the anomalous results. In hindsight I should have started the reaction between the two chemicals as fast as possible from the moment when I removed them from the water bath. Overall, I am fairly confident with my conclusion. However, I would be more confident if I had the opportunity to try the experiment with different chemicals. ...read more.

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