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Testing Nickel (II) Sulphate, Iron (III) Chloride, Potassium Sulphate

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Introduction

1. Nickel (II) Sulphate (NiSO4) Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl3) Potassium Sulphate (K2SO4) 1. Describe the bonding present in the molecule. The bonding present in all three molecules is ?Ionic bonding?. This type of bonding occurs when a positively charged (cation) and a negatively charged (anion) ion are attracted. It typically occurs between a metal and a non-metal. The bond?s structure is strong and rigid. Nickel (II) Sulphate: Nickel (II) (Ni+2) is the cation, whereas Sulphate (SO4-2) is the polyatomic anion. Iron (III) Chloride: Iron (III) (Fe+3) is the cation, whereas Chloride (Cl-1) is the anion. Potassium Sulphate: Potassium (K+), whereas Sulphate (SO4-2) is the polyatomic anion. 1. Explain how the cation tests work, use equations. -Appearance: The elements of group 1, 2 and 3 appear to be white whereas, transition metals appear coloured. Potassium is a group 1 element; therefore, its colour is white. ...read more.

Middle

Iron (III) gave the flame colour bright yellow; this could be due to contamination, normally no specific colour is observed when a flame test is done for Iron (III). Its electron configuration is: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5; as it is seen, the 4s and 3d orbitals aren?t fully filled. This effects the movement of the electrons when it gains energy and no specific colour is observed. Nickel (II) gave the flame colour blue green. Normally it does not give a specific flame colour. Its electron configuration is: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d8; as it is seen, the 4s and 3d orbitals aren?t fully filled. This effects the movement of the electrons when it gains energy and no specific colour is observed. -Precipitation Tests: The precipitation tests which take place could either be single replacement reactions or double placement reactions. ...read more.

Conclusion

In the Sodium carbonate test; Nickel (II) Sulphate formed blue precipitation with Sodium carbonate, normally Nickel forms green precipitation: Iron (III) Chloride formed green precipitation with Sodium carbonate, normally Iron (III) forms brown precipitation: Potassium formed white precipitation with sodium carbonate. 1. Explain how the anion tests work. In the Barium Chloride test; When barium chloride was added to Nickel (II) sulphate white precipitation was formed and when hydrochloric acid was added the precipitation became insoluble: When barium chloride was added to Iron (III) sulphate no precipitation was observed, the solution was colourless and when hydrochloric acid was added there was still no difference, the solution was still colourless; this indicates that the reaction was unsuccessful. Potassium Sulphate formed white precipitation and when hydrochloric acid was added the precipitation became insoluble: In the Silver nitrate test; Iron (III) chloride formed white precipitation when silver nitrate was added: Both the solutions Nickel (II) Sulphate and Potassium Sulphate formed colourless solutions, this indicates that the reaction was unsuccessful. ...read more.

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