• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The aim of the investigation is to find out what effect temperature has on the activity of pectinase when used in apple juice production.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Practical Investigation: Effect of temperature on effectiveness on the Activity Pectinase Aim The aim of the investigation is to find out what effect temperature has on the activity of pectinase when used in apple juice production. Hypothesis And Scientific Reasons I predict the higher the temperature the greater the volume of juice production until a certain temperature where the enzyme denatures. There will also be a temperature where the enzyme works best; this is known as the optimum temperature. This is due to various reasons, ranging from the enzyme's structure (shape), its properties and its size. One of these is that the higher the temperature the more kinetic energy the pectinase has which means more movement and a higher chance of collisions between pectin and pectinase. Enzymes catalyse substrates through the fact that the substrates collide with the enzyme causing the substrate to combine with the enzyme forming the enzyme-substrate complex. Enzymes are globular proteins. They have complex tertiary and often quaternary structure in which polypeptides are folded around each other to form a roughly spherical or globular shape. The overall 3-Dimensional shape of an enzyme molecule is very important: if it is altered, the enzyme cannot bind to its substrate and so cannot function. ...read more.

Middle

Results Table Showing The Volume Of Juice Produced. Temperature (oC) Volume Of Juice Produced (cm3) Repeat 1 (cm3) Repeat 2 (cm3) Average Volume Of Juice (cm3) Control (cm3) 20 2.4 1.6 2.00 2.00 0.00 30 2.6 2.15 4.25 3.00 0.20 40 1.6 1.80 1.30 1.57 0.30 50 1.8 2.15 3.15 2.37 0.30 60 2.0 2.80 2.25 2.35 0.25 70 1.8 0.70 2.05 1.52 0.35 75 1.2 0.10 0.75 0.68 0.35 Table Showing Percentage Increase Temperature (oC) Average Volume Of Juice (cm3) Control (cm3) Percentage Increase (%) 20 2.00 0.00 - 30 3.00 0.20 1400 40 1.57 0.30 423 50 2.37 0.30 690 60 2.35 0.25 840 70 1.52 0.35 334 75 0.68 0.35 94 Analysis Although care was taken to obtain the greatest possible accuracy the results are not accurate enough to fully up hold the hypothesis. Between 20oC and 30oC my hypothesis is accurate as the average volume of juice produced goes up from 2.00cm3 to 3.00cm3 with the 10oC increase in temperature. However the average volume then decreases to 1.57cm3 at 40oC and then increase again to 2.37cm3 at 50oC. From this point the results seem to follow the hypothesis as the average yield of juice decreases as more of the enzyme is denatured at the higher temperatures. ...read more.

Conclusion

One improvement that could be made is to make sure that the apple is only chopped right before the experiment is carried out as for some of the experiments a apple that had been cut in half the day before was used the following day, which no doubt contributed to the anomalous results. To further extend research into the effects of temperature on pectinase there are many possible experiments. The effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme activity could be useful to draw further conclusions on how pectinase activity is affected by temperature. Research into the optimum ph for an enzyme to operate as well as the temperature, would give those in the biotechnologies industry the ideal information for the use of enzymes in for example washing up liquid. It would be very simple to modify this experiment that looked at the effects of temperature, to look at the effects of pH. If a chosen temperature (around 40oC) was used and substrate concentration and enzyme concentration were controlled properly then the experiment could be modified to look at the optimum operating temperature for pectinase. If the optimum temperature and pH for every enzyme in living organisms then it would give a great insight into reactions within the environment around us. Mursil Tafsirullah 12/DR2 Biology: Assessed Practical ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    Pectinase is made using batch fermentation and is secreted from the cells as an extra cellular enzyme, which can be purified more easily. The advantage of Pectinase compared with some other enzymes is the fact that it can be used after purification with no need to be immobilised.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of pH on Pectinase

    3 star(s)

    The final way that pH can alter enzyme activity is by changing the ionization of the substrate. In this is experiment; if the apple puree becomes ionized then it is likely that the reaction will slow down. Apparatus Water bath set to 40 C Water bath set to 100 C 18 x 250cm?

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Beetroot Practical Write up

    3 star(s)

    This is because by increasing the concentrations of the ethanol beyond a certain point it may have no effect on the cell membrane. Preliminary Results measuring the percentage of light transmittance: Concentration of Ethanol Beetroot: 9mm diameter 2cm length Beetroot: 9mm diameter 0.5cm length Beetroot: 8mm diameter 2cm length Beetroot:

  2. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation to find out the optimum temperature for the activity of Lipase".

    3 star(s)

    At 40�C there is a large increase kinetic energy from 20�C so the molecules are moving around much faster, resulting in many more collisions than previously so there is more successful enzyme reactions taking place faster which increases the ROR.

  1. An experiment to find of the isotonic point of root vegetables cells in contents ...

    this region or that other external factors may have affected my results by creating an anomalous result which will be discussed later in my evaluation. For the 0.75 and 0.8 molar sucrose solution the mass, width and length all decreased for the Beetroot.

  2. An Investigation Into the Effect of Substrate Concentration On the Rate of Enzyme Activity.

    The heat block was then set to a temperature of 50oC. 6 test tubes were filled with 10cm3 of hydrogen peroxide solution. The test tubes were then placed into the heat block for 5 minutes to allow them to rise to the correct temperature.

  1. Catalyse Investigation

    � � Fluctuations in the precise set-up of the apparatus, including the depth of the water in the ice-cream tub (which affects the pressure which the oxygen has to push against), the relative heights of the beaker and the bottom of the burette and the air pressure on the day.

  2. Amylase Investigation

    This potential has been greatly expanded in recent years by genetic engineering techniques that have made it possible to produce some enzymes in great quantity. Amylase Amylase, like other enzymes, works as a catalyst, i.e. it is unchanged by the reaction, but makes the reaction easier by reducing the energy required for it to happen.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work