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The aim of this investigation is to analyse what cations and anions are present in Mummion a preservative for mummies

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Introduction

´╗┐Name: Sasha Westfield Unit: Science at work G621 Class code: VSS6 Assignment Objective: AO3 A Preservative for mummies Introduction The aim of this investigation is to analyse what cations and anions are present in Mummion, I will investigate this by doing two types of tests. Mummion is an inorganic solid that is obtained from dried up lake beds, Mummion was used by Egyptians to mummify dead bodies, they would treat the body with a natural occurring preservative which is known as Mummion. An Archaeologist would most likely want to investigate Mummion because they would want to know more about this substance or replicate it. First Test Flame test procedure To find the cations present in mummion I will be carrying out a flame test. I will need the following equipment: Bunsen burner Hydrochloric acid Heat proof mat Nichrome rod Goggles Lab coat Samples of metal ions First, I need to clean the nichrome rod by dipping it in hydrochloric acid. I will then test the cleanliness of the Nichrome rod by inserting it into a gas flame Once the rod is clean I will then choose one of the metal ion samples by adding a bit to the nichrome rod. I will then place it into the blue gas flame to see what colour it obtains. I will eventually repeat the first 3 steps till I have tested all the metal ion samples. ...read more.

Middle

Evaluation I can?t be very certain that sodium is present in the Mummion because we didn?t test every chemical possible. This has a huge impact on my final analysis because it may not be sodium it could be any other chemical I may not have tested. But since I wasn?t able to test these other chemicals I have come to the conclusion that sodium is defiantly present in the Mummion crystals. The flame test could have given me wrong result too because I could have interpreted the colours wrong which may of had an effect on my final result. I may not have cleaned the nichrome rod after each test properly which may have given me inaccurate results. To improve my investigation I could redo theses test accurately to make sure my final results are correct by making sure that the nichrome rod was cleaned properly. Second Test Wet test Procedure To test for the anions present in mummion I will need to do a wet test, the following equipment I need are: Spatula Rack of test tubes Glass rod Nitric acid Ammonia solution Sliver nitrate solution Barium chloride solution Hydrochloric acid Distilled water Metal salts I will start by using a spatula to put a little of one of the sample salts into a clean test tube and then add few drops of nitric acid. If it starts to fizz I will add more nitric acid to generate more gas, where I can let it bubble through lime water to see if it is carbon dioxide. ...read more.

Conclusion

Corrosive irritant Causes burns to skin and eyes Oxidiser Protective clothing such as gloves or lab coat High risk level Seek medical attention and wash hands after contact Barium Chloride (0.1) Toxic Contact with skin or eyes even inhalation Always keep a lab coat on High risk level Seek medical attention if contact with eyes or skin Hydrochloric acid Irritant Toxic Contact with skin and eyes ingestion Always wear goggles and gloves when handling chemicals High risk level Obtain medical help Analysis I found that the anions present in mummion is carbonate and chloride I know this because it was the two that worked the best and gave the same results as the mummion sample . This could mean that my mummion sample was either sodium carbonate or sodium chloride. Evaluation My experiments went very well but if I could redo them I would make some changes. For instance I may have put too much of the sample salts which could have given me wrong results to improve this I would measure the sample salts and make sure they all were measured the same. Some of the test I did gave confusing results which I then interpreted it as how I saw it which may have had an impact on my final results to make this better I could redo the test a few times to make sure the right results were given. Overall I think that my experiments were okay and there wouldn?t be any way to make them better. ...read more.

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