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The aim of this investigation is to see the impact that temperature has on an enzyme and substrate.

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Introduction

Introduction The aim of this investigation is to see the impact that temperature has on an enzyme and substrate. Enzymes are referred to as catalysts. A catalyst is something that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction. Enzymes are known to speed up the rate of formation of a product by a factor of at least one million. In a biological system, the rate of reaction may occur very slowly, or in some cases not at all. This is due to the absence of an enzyme. Most enzymes tend to be large protein molecules, with a three a dimensional shape. Unlike chemical catalysts like manganese dioxide, enzymes are specific. The meaning to that is that, each enzyme will normally catalyse only one reaction. In order for the enzyme to catalyse it must join the substrate. The substrate is the part which combines with the enzyme at its active site. Enzymes tend to be larger than their substrate, and the active site of an enzyme is relatively small part. It consists of 3 - 12 amino residues; the rest of the enzyme molecule is involved in maintaining the shape of the active site. ...read more.

Middle

The enzyme that I will be using is trypsin, and the suspension that will be used is casein. Please note that for every 1�C rise in temperature, the rate of reaction will double. Aims and Hypothesis The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of temperature on the activity of trypsin, using a suspension of casein as the substrate. The water bath will be set five different temperatures; 20�C, 25�C, 30�C, 35�C and 40�C. As I know from basic understanding of enzymes that the changes in clarity of casein will take place, I would then have to hypothesize; * The closer to the optimum temperature I test, the quicker the rate of reaction. * The further away I test from the optimum temperature the longer the rate of reaction. Materials needed The materials that will be needed to carry out this experiment are: * Casein suspension (4%). * Trypsin Solution (0.5%). * Distilled water (2L). * Test tubes and rack. * Graduated pipette (5cm�). * Water baths (set at 20�C, 25�C, 30�C, 35�C and 40�C). * Black card. * Stop watch. Method The method used to perform this experiment was done in seven steps as follows. ...read more.

Conclusion

Temp Rate Mg/Sec 20?C 200 ?326 = 0.61 Mg/Sec 25?C 200 ?303 = 0.66 Mg/Sec 30?C 200 ? 233 = 0.85 Mg/Sec 35?C 200 ?116 = 1.72 Mg/Sec 40?C 200 ? 358 = 0.55 Mg/Sec This is a biological significance due to the fact it shows us how trypsin would act in an uncontrolled test, whether it was at room temperature or 40?C. This also helps us to understand at what temperature trypsin is best made use of. From the table above we can analyses the data and safely say that at 35?C we could make good use of trypsin, rather that at 20?C or 40?C. Evaluation If I were to do this test again, I would make sure that I place the thermometer in the test tube when it is laying in the water bath, instead of placing the thermometer in the water bath directly, so I could measure correctly if the test tube had reached the right temperature. Next time I would also test a bigger variety of temperatures. For example 20?C to about 50?C, so I do not limit myself to a small range. Another factor that could be considered could be testing it at ever ?C, for example 1?C, 2?C, 3?C, 4?C etc. Also testing each test for more than two minutes would again ensure that accurate results were obtained. ...read more.

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