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'The application of enzymes in industry and medicine'.

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Introduction

'The application of enzymes in industry and medicine'. Today, enzymes play a major role in everyday life, not only in living organisms but in the application of the hugely growing industries and medical advances. This is nothing new because enzymes have been used for centuries by local farmers for making cheese or herbal therapists like the 'Chinese "sai-lin-ke" 'for making medicine for the digestive system problems using enzymes many centuries ago. Enzymes play a major role in today's medicine they can show the critical part of understanding the cause of diseases. Most genetic diseases are a result of a particular enzyme deficiency. As medical advances increase in technology so do risks and errors so It can often be difficult to find out about the uses of enzymes in medicine because the clinical diagnostics and pharmaceutical industries work behind tightly closed doors until they want to tell the general public about some positive discovery. Basically, the uses of enzymes in medicine include: * Analytical tests (for example, glucose is always measured by an enzyme based test utilising glucose oxidase). Diabetics use strips of paper impregnated with glucose oxidase to monitor their blood sugar. When a drop of blood is added to the strip, the glucose oxidase metabolises the glucose and a series of reactions produce a measurable colour change that is proportional to the amount of glucose. ...read more.

Middle

Enzyme technology in industry is vast, the uses of enzymes cover from agricultural uses to textile uses. They have advantages over inorganic catalysts, they work at room temperatures therefore decreasing thermal charges, they work within moderate PH levels so there is no need to replace corrosive containers if the PH level is to acidic or alkaline. Enzymes also involve producing one type of isomer so no unwanted by products are formed. Culturing microbes to produce extra cellular enzymes is cheap and effective and easy to get the enzymes because the enzyme is secreted and can easily be removed. The following show some uses of enzymes in industry; Enzymes in baking, to give rise to breads, agricultural uses to allow grass to be easily digested in cows to produce faster milk, brewing to produce perfect beer, detergents to produce biological washing powders, to preserve food or flavouring, making paper and tissue from wood easier and enzymes in leather industry to dehair animal hides. I will explain the uses of detergents, fermentation and textiles in more detail. Fermentation: Wine making is essentially involves the fermentation of grape juice. The extraction of the grape juice is however a more complicated process than other fruit juices as the extraction of flavour components and colours (in the case of red wines) ...read more.

Conclusion

The main applications of enzymes in the leather industry are proteases which help in the dehairing of the animal hides and lipases are used for degreasing. Modern fabrics are reinforced with an adhesive called "the size" before weaving. This prevents breaking of the warp threads. Starch is the most common ingredient of the size, combined with lower quantities of other materials such as gelatine and carboxymethylcellulose (cellulose that has been treated to make it water soluble). Harsher chemicals such as alkalis or acids have been traditionally used for desiring, but are now being replaced by enzymes. Apart from the environmental benefit of replacing harsh chemicals with biodegradable enzymes, enzymes have turned out to be less harsh on the main fabric as well. The finishing of denim jeans has also become a popular application for celluloses in the textile industry. Traditionally denim was stonewashed with pumice stones to fade the surface of the garment. A small application of cellulose can replace many of the stones resulting in less damage to the garments and machinery. This technique has become known as Bio stoning and can result in much greater fading without high abrasive damage both to the actual fabric and any other accessories (buttons, rivets) on the fabric. Stonewashing enzymes are usually available as either "acid" celluloses (optimum activity around 4.5) or "neutral" celluloses (optimum activity at just below pH 7. ...read more.

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