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The application of enzymes in industry and medicine.

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Introduction

The application of enzymes in industry and medicine. Enzymes are catalysts, which are an essential part of our everyday lives. Made mostly from proteins, (although there are some made from lipids or nucleic acids), enzymes become involved in chemical and biological reactions where they simply aid and accelerate the reaction occurring. Enzymes are globular proteins, folded into compact shapes that give them their unique active sites. This tertiary structure of the enzyme determines its function and allows it to be extremely specific, as each will only catalyse one reaction. Therefore, there are thousands and thousands of different enzymes, each with their own specialised function. Enzymes are extremely efficient, and are able to catalyse as many as 1,000 to 10,000,000 molecules every minute. This is due mainly to their high speciality, allowing enzyme and substrate to fit together like a "lock and key", which is one of the hypotheses of ...read more.

Middle

Some commercial application of enzymes; ENZYME REACTION APPLICATION MEDICAL L-asparaginase Breakdown of L-asparagine Cancer chemotherapy (L-asparagine is needed for tumour growth) Cholesterol oxidase Oxidation of chloresterol Estimation of chloresterol in blood Glucose oxidase + peroxidase Oxidation of glucose Estimation of glucose in blood Urokinase Plasminogen Removal of fibrin clots (after heart attacks) INDUSTTRIAL Glucose isomerase Glucose to Fuctose Fructose syrup for food industry Papain Proteins to Peptones Tenderising meat Proteases Proteins to Peptones +amino acids Brewing, baking, cheese making, leather making Pectinesterases Pectin to Polygalacturonate + methanol Removal of "haze" from Beer. In the field of medicine, enzymology is a critical aspect of understanding the cause of diseases. Most genetic diseases are a result of a particular enzyme deficiency. Enzymes are used in many aspects of medicine, most notably, analytic tests, diagnosing diseases wound therapy, anti-inflammatory reagents, drug manufacture and to aid digestion. ...read more.

Conclusion

When the clinistic is dipped into the urine, the glucose oxidase (enzyme) attached to the stick reacts with the urine to form gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Glucose Glucose + O2 + H2O Gluconic acid + H2O Oxidase The peroxide then reacts with a colourless chemical, also on the stick, chromogen. This is oxidised to form a coloured product, which is then catalysed by a peroxidase. Peroxidase H2O2 + Chromogen H2O2 + Coloured dye. Enzymes are also widely used in medicines for their anti-inflammatory reagents. One example in particular is Lasonil(tm), this is an ointment used to treat sprains, bruises and other swellings. This contains the enzyme hyaluronidase, an enzyme that acts on hyaluronic acid (a section of the connective tissue substance which helps bond cells together). The effect of this is that it makes it easier for the tissues to reabsorb the fluid from the affected area, and thus ease the swelling. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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