• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Application of enzymes in industry

Extracts from this document...


The Application of Enzymes in Industry & Medicine Enzymes are catalysts in living cells. These enzymes increase the rate of reaction, but can be recovered after the reaction, and not be chemically changed. Enzymes are made up of proteins, which are themselves made up of amino acids. These amino acids are twisted into a ball depending on the sequence of amino acids [1], because it can be any sequence, there are hundreds of enzymes and each enzyme is designed to react with a different substrate, for example amylase found in the saliva reacts with starch to produce glucose. Enzymes are usually larger than the substrate they work on and only a bit of the enzyme actually comes into contact with the substrate. ...read more.


This is usually done with harsh chlorine compounds under high pressures. The costs of building plants capable of containing these pressures are expensive. However enzymes are capable of stripping off the fine surface enzymes and thereby reducing, if not eliminating, the need to bleach Another use of enzymes is in the textile industry, such as stone washed jeans. Usually pumice stones are used, but with the introduction of cellulose enzymes the jeans industry can completely eliminate the use of stones. As cotton is completely made up of cellulose [2] enzymes weaken the fabric in the same way as stoning. Cellulase enzymes can be used to create new looks whereas stones only had one effect, also stones can over abrade and damage the denim but enzymes In most people the pancreas produces the hormone insulin, which allows the glucose to be absorbed from the blood. ...read more.


It can also be used in helping patients recover from certain ailments such as heart attacks and childhood Leukaemia. [4]Nattokinase is an orally digested enzyme that digests fibrin, the actual clotting material, without risk of bleeding or slowing the wounds healing. This minimises the damage done to the heart muscle. The enzyme asparaginase is used to treat acute childhood leukaemia. The treatment depends on the cancerous cells lacking in the enzyme aspartate- ammonia ligase. This means they cannot synthesise the amino acid L-asparagine. In conclusion enzymes have many uses in industry. They can affect the look and style of stonewashed jeans. Energy and therefore costs of the paper industry are lowered due to the use of enzymes. Enzymes are also useful in medicine where they can be used for analytical purposes such as in checking a person's blood sugar levels or even therapeutic uses after heart attacks or helping with acute childhood leukaemia. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine.

    Heating a substance gives it greater kinetic energy, thus making the substance move around more increasing its chance of collision to react. The optimum temperature for most enzymes is around 45?C, a little higher than body temperature but each enzyme has evolved to its surroundings.

  2. 'The application of enzymes in industry and medicine'.

    The use of enzymes in automatic dishwashing detergents is also becoming popular. Typical enzyme activities are protease and amylase to remove food particles. Such new products are more environmentally-friendly as they contain less bleaching agents and phosphates, they also lower washing temperatures to reduce the painful heating bills.

  1. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine

    The graph below shows this relationship: The concentration of enzymes and substrates present can also influence the rate of reaction, the higher the concentration the faster the rate of reaction, the relationship is the same if you increase the amount of enzyme.

  2. My presentation on the material wood.

    However, wood does not continue to serve this function indefinitely. At some stage, the wood cells may become blocked by air bubbles, other cells, or by deposition of other substances. Wood that is functional in water transport is referred to as sapwood, and occupies the outer, or more recently formed growth rings (here, the yellowish zone).

  1. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and in Medicine

    The basic enzymatic reaction can be represented as follows: The enzyme combines reversibly with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex: enzyme + substrate ==> enzyme-substrate complex E + S ==> ES The enzyme-substrate complex then breaks down to give the product and releases the enzyme in an unchanged form:

  2. The application of enzymes in industry and medicine

    The finishing of denim jeans has also become a popular application for cellulases in the textile industry. Traditionally denim was stonewashed with pumice stones to fade the surface of the garment. A small application of cellulase can replace many of the stones resulting in less damage to the garments and machinery.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work