• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine

Extracts from this document...


The Applications of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine Enzymes are produced by living cells, with each cell containing several hundred enzymes. They are extremely specific, only react with one substrate. They are able to speed up the rate of a chemical reactions. All enzymes are proteins and therefore have a tertiary structure. Each enzyme is a specific shape with an active site which is specific to one substrate molecule. When the active site and substrate combine then, enzyme substrate complexes are formed.( Enzymes have several applications in Industry and medicine. Examples are in the paper industry, starch industry, leather industry, pharmaceutical and diagnostic industry, baking industry, beer brewing industry, detergent industry and the wine making industry. In the paper industry, wood is the main source for paper, so the process of pulping involves separating useful cellulose fibres from lignin. The process of pulping can be performed by a chemical process. This chemical process involves Kraft process in which the wood chips are being treated with harsh chemicals until the lignin is dissolved. Enzyme treatment of Kraft pulps have been shown to remove the hemicelluloses bound to the surface of fibres which makes it easier to remove bound lignin components thereby reducing the requirement for chlorine bleaching. ...read more.


Before harsh chemicals were used for this process, but the use of enzymes are less harsh on the fabric. In the textile industry, enzymes are used for the finishing of fabric and clothes. As cellulose is the main component in cotton and other natural fibres, the application of the cellulase enzyme can remove rough protuberances giving a smoother, glossier brighter coloured fabric. This process can also be known as Biopolishing. In the denim industry by applying the enzyme cellulase onto the denim gives it a faded surface garment. This process is known as Biostoning.( Enzymes are also used in the baking industry. The wheat flour in the bread has occurring enzymes that modify the starch. The yeast also has enzymes and helps ferment maltose to produce carbon dioxide that makes the bread rise. In order to produce consistent products, enzymes are used as supplements in the bread baking process. These include xylanase (responsible for water absorption), amylase (helps prolong freshness), protease, glucose oxidase (strengthen gluten) and lipase (stops bread staling).( Beer brewing also involves the use of enzymes. ...read more.


When blood is added to the strip the glucose oxidase metabolises the glucose to a measurable colour change to the amount of glucose in the blood. The presence of enzymes where they should not be found is vital in diagnostic of disease. E.g. enzymes that should only be in the liver may leek into the blood stream and testing the blood can identify liver damage. Therapeutic enzymes are used in medicines to replace enzyme deficiencies in patients. Also the enzyme protease is used in wound therapy in medicine. They are used to clean up the wound and accelerate the healing process. Enzymes can also be used in drug manufacture where the synthesis of drugs is difficult so enzymes are used to perform the chemical procedure. Enzymes can also be used to aid digestion where they are used to supplement amylase, lipase and protease produced mainly by the pancreas. An example is lactose intolerant people where they require lactose as their bodies are not producing it. ( From this essay into the applications of enzymes in industry and medicine, I conclude that enzymes are widely used throughout the world in industries but details of enzymes uses in medicine are hard to find as scientists rarely publish details to the public until they are finalised. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Uses Of Enzymes in Medicine and Industry

    Fructose is used in diet foods rather than glucose because it is sweeter so less is needed and therefore reducing the calorie content. Enzymes are used to remove the hairs from the animal skins to produce leather. A protease enzyme is used, eg trypsin, which partly digests keratin, the main

  2. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine.

    Denaturation of the enzyme structure would give rise to a distorted active site upon which the substrate would no longer be able to bond. Any damage to an enzyme is permanent and it becomes inactive, even when cooled. Most enzymes also have an optimum pH at which the reaction rate is fastest.

  1. Use of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine

    To produce the syrup grains are sent to starch slurry and the enzyme amylase is added to speed up the reaction. This then produces glucose syrup. This syrup is then passed down a column of immobilised glucose isomerase enzymes and this converts most of the glucose to fructose.

  2. The use of enzymes in industry and medicine.

    The hybrid plasmid replicates as part of the cell's DNA when it is reincorporated into the bacterial cell. 4. A large number of daughter cells can be cultured and their gene products extracted for human use. Enzymes can be used to aid digestion in both humans and animals.

  1. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine

    The graph below shows this relationship: The concentration of enzymes and substrates present can also influence the rate of reaction, the higher the concentration the faster the rate of reaction, the relationship is the same if you increase the amount of enzyme.

  2. Uses of enzymes In industry and Medicine

    Once again it is held together by hydrogen bonds. Below is a diagram of the ?-sheet: The tertiary structure is the compact globular structure formed when a whole polypeptide chain folds. Every protein has a distinctive tertiary structure which is responsible for its properties and function. The tertiary structure is held together by bonds between the R groups of

  1. Current and future biotechnological applications of Extremophiles.

    Also if this is managed, these conditions may be unstable and cannot be kept that way for long periods of time. With further research and more effort this may be achievable (6). Current applications of these extremophiles are the use of enzymes from thermophiles for PCR, food processors and detergent

  2. The Uses of Enzymes In Industry, Medicine and Analytical and Diagnostic Processes.

    that farmers get more money when they are sold and they will have higher production efficiency. Other enzymes are now being developed which will have the same effect on ruminant species such as cattle. Another example of enzymes used in industry is the use of phytase which increases the reaction releasing phosphorus from phytic acid in plants.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work