• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Arguments for and against developing genetic fingerprint profile of all members of society.

Extracts from this document...


The Arguments for and against developing genetic fingerprint profile of all members of society. DNA fingerprinting is a method of identification that compares fragments of deoxyribosenucleic acid (DNA). DNA is the genetic material found within the cell nuclei of all living things. In mammals the strands of DNA are grouped into structures called chromosomes. With the exception of identical twins, the complete DNA of each individual is unique. DNA fingerprinting was first developed as an identification technique in 1985. Originally to detect the presence of genetic diseases, DNA fingerprinting soon came to be used in the criminal investigations as forensic science. The first criminal conviction based on DNA evidence in the USA occurred 1988. There are several reasons why DNA fingerprinting have been challenged in the past for its reliability because: * Large-scale research to confirm the uniqueness of DNA fingerprinting test results has not been conducted. * DNA fingerprinting is often performed in private laboratories that may not follow uniform testing standards and quality controls. * If there is delay in collecting the sample, the DNA could have decomposed, so that some sites normally cut by the restriction enzyme could have been lost. ...read more.


DNA fingerprinting is based on the number of repeats of core sequence. Each individual has 50 to 100 different types of minisatellites. DNA Fingerprinting: Extraction: - Sample of tissues containing cells with a nucleus. In the laboratory the DNA is extracted by shaking the sample in a mixture of water -saturated phenol and chloroform. He proteins precipitate out, leaving pure DNA dissolved in the water layer. The amount of tissue that is required is very small:0. 5 cm� of blood, 0.005cm� of semen or one hair root. Digestion: - Restriction enzymes are added o the DNA to cut it. These enzymes recognise specific base sequences and specific points, close to but not within minisatellites intact. Producing a number of DNA fragments of different lengths, some containing minisatellites. Separation/with electrophoresis: - The DNA fragments are separated according to size by electrophoresis. This involves placing the fragments in wells at one end of a block of agarose gel. An electric current is then passed through the gel. The pieces of DNA carry -ve charges and so move towards the +ve charged electrode. ...read more.


If there is a match, an automated scanning system is used to calculate the length of the DNA fragments denoted by the band. The main argument against genetic fingerprinting is the use of private genetic information. The term means any information about an identifiable individual that is derived from the presence, absence, alteration, or mutation of a gene or genes, or the presence or absence of a specific DNA marker or markers, and which have been obtained: This is the key to the act because it defines the information that is protected by it. This definition recognises that not all-genetic information needs or warrants legal protection, and limits the acts protection to information derived from medical examinations, family histories, or pedigrees. The argument for genetic fingerprinting is that personal genetic information can tell us what will or is likely to occur in our health in future years, unlike tests which tell us about the chance that we exhibit a characteristic of a condition. It is also used to diagnose inherited disorders in both prenatal and newborn babies. These may include cystic fibrosis, haemophilia and Huntingdon's disease. Developing cures for inherited disorders on the chromosomes depend on the information contained in DNA fingerprints. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    Using this method has a distinct number of advantages over using a single dataset of results; accuracy, reliability and the ability to produce an informed conclusion with basis on actual biological relationships and observed investigational results. In addition to these advantages, collating a range of data has the added benefit

  2. Marked by a teacher


    4 star(s)

    She said if she was to give another individual advice on coping strategies if diagnosed with bipolar disorder it would be the following: - Fully participate in treatment and medication - Increase your knowledge about bipolar disorder - Learn about different ways you can control your symptoms, the more knowledge

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Arguments For And Against The Development of A Genetic Profile For All Members of ...

    3 star(s)

    o Quality controlled labs were very few and as a result, led to poor test quality.

  2. Peer reviewed

    The arguments for and against developing a “genetic fingerprint” profile for all members of ...

    4 star(s)

    Genetic fingerprinting has several major uses in our modern day society. The first is in the aid in forensics and criminology. Genetic fingerprinting can identify criminals who have left a crime scene, given that they have left some form of bodily fluid at that area.

  1. Chromosomes and DNA

    Food chains give two other types of useful information: * They show how materials (biomass) move through an ecosystem, as one organism feeds on another. * They show how energy flows through an ecosystem. The food has to come from somewhere in the first place so remember that the first

  2. Free essay

    Cloning Reasearch Paper

    heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries." (Robby) The goal of cloning cells would be to cure heart diseases by injecting new cells in a sick heart.

  1. Investigating what effect varying the concentration of copper sulphate has on the enzyme Catalase ...

    * Conical flask with bung and delivery tube. This is to hold the reactants in the experiment and to deliver the products as to measure the amount of oxygen given off. * Large water trough. This stops the water in the burette from escaping. It is also to stop any gas (product)

  2. Possible Cures For Migraines

    Social costs are obtained by adding the costs of the National Health Service to the total cost of absences from work. One U.S. dollar equaled approximately 1,632 Italian lira at the time of the study. Type of cost Period Cost of acupuncture group (in lira)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work