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The Arguments for and against developing genetic fingerprint profile of all members of society.

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Introduction

The Arguments for and against developing genetic fingerprint profile of all members of society. DNA fingerprinting is a method of identification that compares fragments of deoxyribosenucleic acid (DNA). DNA is the genetic material found within the cell nuclei of all living things. In mammals the strands of DNA are grouped into structures called chromosomes. With the exception of identical twins, the complete DNA of each individual is unique. DNA fingerprinting was first developed as an identification technique in 1985. Originally to detect the presence of genetic diseases, DNA fingerprinting soon came to be used in the criminal investigations as forensic science. The first criminal conviction based on DNA evidence in the USA occurred 1988. There are several reasons why DNA fingerprinting have been challenged in the past for its reliability because: * Large-scale research to confirm the uniqueness of DNA fingerprinting test results has not been conducted. * DNA fingerprinting is often performed in private laboratories that may not follow uniform testing standards and quality controls. * If there is delay in collecting the sample, the DNA could have decomposed, so that some sites normally cut by the restriction enzyme could have been lost. ...read more.

Middle

DNA fingerprinting is based on the number of repeats of core sequence. Each individual has 50 to 100 different types of minisatellites. DNA Fingerprinting: Extraction: - Sample of tissues containing cells with a nucleus. In the laboratory the DNA is extracted by shaking the sample in a mixture of water -saturated phenol and chloroform. He proteins precipitate out, leaving pure DNA dissolved in the water layer. The amount of tissue that is required is very small:0. 5 cm� of blood, 0.005cm� of semen or one hair root. Digestion: - Restriction enzymes are added o the DNA to cut it. These enzymes recognise specific base sequences and specific points, close to but not within minisatellites intact. Producing a number of DNA fragments of different lengths, some containing minisatellites. Separation/with electrophoresis: - The DNA fragments are separated according to size by electrophoresis. This involves placing the fragments in wells at one end of a block of agarose gel. An electric current is then passed through the gel. The pieces of DNA carry -ve charges and so move towards the +ve charged electrode. ...read more.

Conclusion

If there is a match, an automated scanning system is used to calculate the length of the DNA fragments denoted by the band. The main argument against genetic fingerprinting is the use of private genetic information. The term means any information about an identifiable individual that is derived from the presence, absence, alteration, or mutation of a gene or genes, or the presence or absence of a specific DNA marker or markers, and which have been obtained: This is the key to the act because it defines the information that is protected by it. This definition recognises that not all-genetic information needs or warrants legal protection, and limits the acts protection to information derived from medical examinations, family histories, or pedigrees. The argument for genetic fingerprinting is that personal genetic information can tell us what will or is likely to occur in our health in future years, unlike tests which tell us about the chance that we exhibit a characteristic of a condition. It is also used to diagnose inherited disorders in both prenatal and newborn babies. These may include cystic fibrosis, haemophilia and Huntingdon's disease. Developing cures for inherited disorders on the chromosomes depend on the information contained in DNA fingerprints. ...read more.

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