• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19

The cloning of Dolly.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Contents Subject Page No. Introduction 2 Definitions of Terms 3 - 4 Arguments for and against 5 - 10 What the law states on the subject 11 Case studies 12 - 14 Islamic Perspective on Cloning 15 - 17 Personal Evaluation 18 Bibliography 19 Introduction Cloning On the 23 February 1997, the world woke up to news of a new technological advance. This advance was embodied in a "little lamb" going by the name of Dolly. At first glance, one could be forgiven for wondering what was so special about this white-faced sheep. Dolly looked like hundreds of the other lambs that dot the hills and fields of Scotland; and indeed for six months this lamb had grazed quietly and unnoticed among them. Dolly appeared positively ordinary. However, Dolly, despite appearances, had a most unusual conception. She was not the end result of a fusion of sperm with egg, which had been cloned from a single cell taken from the breast tissue of an adult sheep. It was the idea that this technology could be applied to humans. The cloning of Dolly raises serious ethical questions, particularly with respect to the possible use of this technology to clone human embryos. Religious groups across the world wondered if this is a miracle was to which we can thank God for, or to ignore it as an ominous way of playing God ourselves. Ethical choices must also have to be made. The public response to cloning suggests that countries differ widely in their opinions of this new technology. Immediately after the announcement of Dolly's birth, Italy banned the cloning of any mammal, but a number of groups in the U.S. welcomed the technique. This shows the difference in opinion, all around the world. What's the purpose of cloning? The main purpose of cloning is to find a more effective way of producing animals for desirable agriculture, food or medicine. ...read more.

Middle

The very low success rate being 13.6%. As with Dolly, out of the 277 cell fusions only 29 cells began growing in culture. All 29 were implanted into ewes but only a single lamb was produced. This is a success rate of a mere 0.36%. This also raised the important issue of this happening to humans? One of the experimented mothers used in the production of Megan and Morag, had to have a caesarean purely because the lamb she was carrying was so huge. The lamb weighed 15lb where as the average weight for a welsh mountain lamb was 8lb. Defects after Cloning Cloned animals have been found to suffer from serious genetic defects - this discovery that could deliver a fatal blow to hopes of ever using cloning for human reproduction. French scientists have, for the first time discovered new evidence, which show that cloning interferes with the normal function of genes in the human body. A valid factor that altogether decide whether cloning was to be made illegal was that after the animal or human had been cloned they could they could develop an illness that that would most definitely kill the animal and hopefully not, a human. Professor Wilmut, who cloned Dolly the sheep, said that once the cloning process had completed, it could inherited problems, due to the different process they used, to clone Dolly. Further more, one of the calves used in the Dolly experiment had developed normally for the first few weeks but later developed a rapid reduction in red blood cells, the calf later developed a very severe form of anemia, caused by incomplete development of its lymph glands. Playing God Most people believe that we were created by god but in the case of cloning somebody else in the world are creating life on earth. Many groups in the U.K believe that it is not natural for humans to be produced in the horrific process of cloning. ...read more.

Conclusion

Islam regards personal relationships as essential to human and religious life. In fact, the Prophet is reported to have said that nine-tenth of religion constitutes are to do with human relationships, whereas only one-tenth is God-human. Since the George Washington University Medical Centre successfully duplicated, genetically defective human embryos in 1993, Muslims have raised questions about the misuse of human embryos beyond IVF implantation in terms of their impact upon the original relationship between man and woman. This indicates that there would be almost an agreement in Islamic rulings on therapeutic uses of cloning, as long as the family of the child remains religiously unblemished. Muslims, like other people around the world, thinks the technology is abnormal. For Muslim people, no human action is possible without an intention and will. In the recent history, it is quite reasonable for the Muslims, Christians and Jews, to fear political abuse of the reproduction technology through cloning. With its prominence on spiritual legality, Islam has refused to agree with the validity. The only valid claim to nobility in the Qur'an stems from being god fearing. Personal Evaluation My position on the issue What would happen if we cloned a person? Would it be just like the real person? Would it have the same knowledge? Personality? Physical features? And most importantly, would it have a soul? Maybe it would have a different soul, or they'll share the same soul, or maybe it won't have a soul. Can it live without a soul? Only God can create life. I think by cloning, especially people, we (in a sense) become God. Able to create and destroy life, whenever we choose to. And just think of the cloned person. If by some miracle we can clone a person, and it lives. It will be locked up in a lab for the rest of its life. While scientists perform tests on it. In my opinion human cloning should be left alone. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

Good essay. The candidate outlines a range of different ideas and concepts in a clear, concise manner before presenting an adequate conclusion which concludes with their own opinions on the subject matter. Scientific concepts used could have been explored in ...

Read full review

Response to the question

Good essay. The candidate outlines a range of different ideas and concepts in a clear, concise manner before presenting an adequate conclusion which concludes with their own opinions on the subject matter. Scientific concepts used could have been explored in a much deeper scientific depth and the candidate could have broadened the horizons to improve their grade.

Level of analysis

Introduction outlines the background of the topic of cloning well. The purpose of cloning is not described very well and the meaning is sometimes hard to follow with the way the text is written. The level of analysis involved in the essay is very well presented with many different links and topics being analysed. To increase the level included, the candidate could include a range of different presentation sources including diagrams to explain the different concepts better. Scientific terms used are high for this level of candidate, but could have been more in depth to increase their grade further.

Quality of writing

One or two words have spaces in between them due to typing error which could have been avoided by simple proof-reading. Other grammar, punctuation and spelling are all fine.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by skatealexia 06/04/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Nature vs. Nurture - And its affect on intelligence, personality, and behavior

    4 star(s)

    It is through the use of these so-called traits that behaviors begin to emerge. Basically, what you use your hands to do, and how you use your hands affects your behavior. Other physical traits affect the psychological aspects of a person.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    If you are suffering from bipolar disorder they would encounter periods or 'episodes', of depression and mania. Depression and mania are associated with bipolar disorders, they are characterised as follows: --> Depression - where they would feel very low --> Mania - Where you feel very high, slightly sever mania

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The daphnia lab report

    3 star(s)

    antennules and smaller size versus the females large body and eggs it stores. Females produce over a 100 eggs during each nesting which occurs every 3 days. Daphnia are sensitive when it comes to poor water conditions, they are sensitive to chloride or fluoride which is in tap water and highly toxic for these creatures.

  2. Edexcel Level 3 Extended Project - Should Embyonic Stem Cell Research be applied to ...

    Ozimic compares the demoralization of embryos to that of other people demoralizing groups such as ethnic minorities, which is unacceptable in our modern society. So why is it different for embryos? What gives us the right to say an embryo is less of a person that us?

  1. Genetic Engineering Should be Banned

    Scientists are excited at the prospect of growing a viable human organ in another mammal. This would eliminate the need for organ donors and waiting lists. Skin, brain cells, hearts, livers, lungs and kidneys could all be produced and harvested faster than we could ever imagine.

  2. microbiology ph and temperature effect on bacterial culture

    5 N/a N/a N/a N/a Absorbance group 6 0.01 0.55 0.31 0.01 Absorbance group 7 0.04 0.01 0.49 0.01 Absorbance Group 8 N/a N/a N/a N/a Absorbance Group 8 0.06 0.64 0.01 0 Absorbance Group 9 N/a N/a N/a N/a Mean 0.03 0.45 0.37 0.01 The mean of each micrococcus

  1. The Advantages and Moral Dilemmas of Human Cloning.

    Although many people think it is wrong, they are still curious to find out if cloning humans is really possible. Cloning might have its advantages and could help people or make them livelonger. Scientists say that cloning a human embryo would make research into genetics and genetically related diseases easier and cheaper.

  2. The purpose of this experiment is to identify plant pigments by separation, using thin ...

    are 7 pigments, nettle plant dye has 6 pigments and grass has 6 pigments. C:\Users\Sutharsan\Desktop\TLC 1.bmp C:\Users\Sutharsan\Desktop\TLC 2.jpg C:\Users\Nievettha\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\Redbridge-20120323-00939.jpg Analysis The TLC slide shows that as the solvent travels up the slide, the plant dyes travel at different rates.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work