• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19

The cloning of Dolly.

Extracts from this document...


Contents Subject Page No. Introduction 2 Definitions of Terms 3 - 4 Arguments for and against 5 - 10 What the law states on the subject 11 Case studies 12 - 14 Islamic Perspective on Cloning 15 - 17 Personal Evaluation 18 Bibliography 19 Introduction Cloning On the 23 February 1997, the world woke up to news of a new technological advance. This advance was embodied in a "little lamb" going by the name of Dolly. At first glance, one could be forgiven for wondering what was so special about this white-faced sheep. Dolly looked like hundreds of the other lambs that dot the hills and fields of Scotland; and indeed for six months this lamb had grazed quietly and unnoticed among them. Dolly appeared positively ordinary. However, Dolly, despite appearances, had a most unusual conception. She was not the end result of a fusion of sperm with egg, which had been cloned from a single cell taken from the breast tissue of an adult sheep. It was the idea that this technology could be applied to humans. The cloning of Dolly raises serious ethical questions, particularly with respect to the possible use of this technology to clone human embryos. Religious groups across the world wondered if this is a miracle was to which we can thank God for, or to ignore it as an ominous way of playing God ourselves. Ethical choices must also have to be made. The public response to cloning suggests that countries differ widely in their opinions of this new technology. Immediately after the announcement of Dolly's birth, Italy banned the cloning of any mammal, but a number of groups in the U.S. welcomed the technique. This shows the difference in opinion, all around the world. What's the purpose of cloning? The main purpose of cloning is to find a more effective way of producing animals for desirable agriculture, food or medicine. ...read more.


The very low success rate being 13.6%. As with Dolly, out of the 277 cell fusions only 29 cells began growing in culture. All 29 were implanted into ewes but only a single lamb was produced. This is a success rate of a mere 0.36%. This also raised the important issue of this happening to humans? One of the experimented mothers used in the production of Megan and Morag, had to have a caesarean purely because the lamb she was carrying was so huge. The lamb weighed 15lb where as the average weight for a welsh mountain lamb was 8lb. Defects after Cloning Cloned animals have been found to suffer from serious genetic defects - this discovery that could deliver a fatal blow to hopes of ever using cloning for human reproduction. French scientists have, for the first time discovered new evidence, which show that cloning interferes with the normal function of genes in the human body. A valid factor that altogether decide whether cloning was to be made illegal was that after the animal or human had been cloned they could they could develop an illness that that would most definitely kill the animal and hopefully not, a human. Professor Wilmut, who cloned Dolly the sheep, said that once the cloning process had completed, it could inherited problems, due to the different process they used, to clone Dolly. Further more, one of the calves used in the Dolly experiment had developed normally for the first few weeks but later developed a rapid reduction in red blood cells, the calf later developed a very severe form of anemia, caused by incomplete development of its lymph glands. Playing God Most people believe that we were created by god but in the case of cloning somebody else in the world are creating life on earth. Many groups in the U.K believe that it is not natural for humans to be produced in the horrific process of cloning. ...read more.


Islam regards personal relationships as essential to human and religious life. In fact, the Prophet is reported to have said that nine-tenth of religion constitutes are to do with human relationships, whereas only one-tenth is God-human. Since the George Washington University Medical Centre successfully duplicated, genetically defective human embryos in 1993, Muslims have raised questions about the misuse of human embryos beyond IVF implantation in terms of their impact upon the original relationship between man and woman. This indicates that there would be almost an agreement in Islamic rulings on therapeutic uses of cloning, as long as the family of the child remains religiously unblemished. Muslims, like other people around the world, thinks the technology is abnormal. For Muslim people, no human action is possible without an intention and will. In the recent history, it is quite reasonable for the Muslims, Christians and Jews, to fear political abuse of the reproduction technology through cloning. With its prominence on spiritual legality, Islam has refused to agree with the validity. The only valid claim to nobility in the Qur'an stems from being god fearing. Personal Evaluation My position on the issue What would happen if we cloned a person? Would it be just like the real person? Would it have the same knowledge? Personality? Physical features? And most importantly, would it have a soul? Maybe it would have a different soul, or they'll share the same soul, or maybe it won't have a soul. Can it live without a soul? Only God can create life. I think by cloning, especially people, we (in a sense) become God. Able to create and destroy life, whenever we choose to. And just think of the cloned person. If by some miracle we can clone a person, and it lives. It will be locked up in a lab for the rest of its life. While scientists perform tests on it. In my opinion human cloning should be left alone. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Response to the question

Good essay. The candidate outlines a range of different ideas and concepts in a clear, concise manner before presenting an adequate conclusion which concludes with their own opinions on the subject matter. Scientific concepts used could have been explored in ...

Read full review

Response to the question

Good essay. The candidate outlines a range of different ideas and concepts in a clear, concise manner before presenting an adequate conclusion which concludes with their own opinions on the subject matter. Scientific concepts used could have been explored in a much deeper scientific depth and the candidate could have broadened the horizons to improve their grade.

Level of analysis

Introduction outlines the background of the topic of cloning well. The purpose of cloning is not described very well and the meaning is sometimes hard to follow with the way the text is written. The level of analysis involved in the essay is very well presented with many different links and topics being analysed. To increase the level included, the candidate could include a range of different presentation sources including diagrams to explain the different concepts better. Scientific terms used are high for this level of candidate, but could have been more in depth to increase their grade further.

Quality of writing

One or two words have spaces in between them due to typing error which could have been avoided by simple proof-reading. Other grammar, punctuation and spelling are all fine.

Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by skatealexia 06/04/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Revision notes - origins of life on Earth, chemistry of life

    5 star(s)

    quite different to the scientific evidence * In biblical creationism different organisms were made at the same time; the organisms that were created have not changed nor are they related. * Charles Darwin - theories on evolution; stating that the same rules of bio apply to man as well as

  2. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    their respective organism; the root tip cells of the allium are meristematic in nature; a characteristic that is analogous to stem cells in animals, as both are undifferentiated (or totiopotent/pluripotent, to use the correct biological vocabulary). It is for these suggested reasons that there should be a minimal amount of

  1. Marked by a teacher


    4 star(s)

    If you are suffering from bipolar disorder they would encounter periods or 'episodes', of depression and mania. Depression and mania are associated with bipolar disorders, they are characterised as follows: --> Depression - where they would feel very low --> Mania - Where you feel very high, slightly sever mania

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Nature vs. Nurture - And its affect on intelligence, personality, and behavior

    4 star(s)

    An example of this is language. Humans converse and produce vocal sounds with the aid of the vocal cords, jaw, teeth, tongue, etc. Fingers are other examples of these traits. Fingers help handle and manipulate different tools. Without certain physiologies, the way human's work and think would not be as significant as it has evolved to be today.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Research Project - Could stems cells provide a cure for diabetes?

    4 star(s)

    "Adult stem cell biology is at the forefront of the emerging field of regenerative medicine, offering a source of cells to generate tissues that lack some of the ethical and political impediments inherent in embryonic, fetal, and cloned cells." - K�rsad T�rksen, a senior scientist in chronic disease at Ottawa

  2. Marked by a teacher

    natural selection and the effects of environmental change

    3 star(s)

    Via mistakes in DNA replication the ?piece of coding? in the DNA that codes for the development of the eye in the Halibut contained mistakes and so over many generations the ?eye migrated around the other side? (-Richard Dawkins) so instead of one eye being redundant, and looking into the

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    If, on the other hand, only one parent had a faulty gene, as shown in figure one, then the chances of having a child with a disorder such as autism are reduced to 25% for each pregnancy. Single Abnormal Gene An abnormal gene is when a gene is no longer the same as other genes as it has changed characteristics.

  2. Gm foods and Gene therapy

    These take a heavy dependability in a region where latest developments are taking place all the time. This is an appropriate response to the matters expressed earlier. It is essential that, whilst not exaggerating the authoritarian hurdles that require to be cleared by applicants, these committees do not lose their

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work