• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Commercial Use of Enzymes.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Commercial Use of Enzymes Throughout this project I will be looking at the use of enzymes in industry. I will focus my thoughts onto the medical area and furthermore onto the portable medical devices. This will include looking at biosensors in great detail along with medical test strips. Enzymes are chemical catalysts; this means that they increase the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed in the process. The exact nature of how enzymes work is not know. The majority of the reactions that occur in living organisms are enzyme controlled and without them, the reactions that are necessary for the organisms to function would be reduced to a rate too slow as to cause serious/fatal damage. Without enzymes, toxins would rapidly build up in the organism and the supply of respiratory substrate would fall. Most enzymes are proteins which themselves are polymers of amino acids (A few rib nucleoprotein enzymes have been discovered and, for some of these, the catalytic activity is in the RNA part rather than the protein part). This means that they have a specific shape. Therefore an enzyme is specific in the reactions that they catalyse (one enzyme will only react with one molecule of a substrate). ...read more.

Middle

This measures the concentration of oxygen dissolved in a solution. When the tip is placed in a drop of blood, glucose within the blood diffuses into the pores of the gel. This use's up the oxygen in the enzyme as it has to break down the glucose. The electrode monitors the oxygen levels and converts it to an electrical signal. This is transduced and sent to a display that has been pre-calibrated to show the amount of glucose in the blood. *When an enzyme is immobilised it means that it is not in a solution but instead attached to or trapped within an insoluble material. These are much more useful than free enzymes, as: o They are much more thermo stable (stable at high temperatures). o They are more resistant to changes in pH. o They are less likely to be degraded by organic solvents. o The products are uncontaminated by enzyme and can be collected more easily. o The enzyme can be retained and re-used. o Use of columns of immobilised enzyme allows automation of the industrial process. (All of these factors are important when scaling up the use of enzymes to a commercial level.) The first attempt to use a biosensor was in 1962 by a man named Professor Leland C. ...read more.

Conclusion

The strips can only be used once unlike biosensors that can be used time and time again. The benefit of test strips over biosensors is that they cost a great deal less as they are just a piece of card/plastic rather than an electronic device. Recent advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and immunochemistry have expanded the range of biological sensing elements, improving assay selectivity and sensitivity, while the advent of diode and LEDs has enabled the development of small, inexpensive optical biosensors. In addition, developments in fiber optics and microelectronics have yielded signal transducers that are smaller and more durable, and which offer improved signal/noise ratios and reduced manufacturing costs. These two points along with the ever advancing bio sensor chips show that the market for biosensors will always be here and as long as they remain useful to both the general public and businesses, they will continue to progress as fast as technology will allow. The demand for chemical sensors in the US is predicted to grow 8.6 percent annually through 2006. Optical sensors and biosensors are predicted to grow the fastest, although nearly all products will benefit from improving performance, lower costs and the penetration of new, large-volume markets. The large medical/diagnostic segment should continue to offer the best opportunities. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Enzymes in agriculture.

    4 star(s)

    Gluten is a large network, which is very viscous and elastic. It is this network, which gives the doughs their unique consistency and holds the gas from yeast fermentation during baking to form the open crumb structure of the finished leavened bread.

  2. Investigating the effect of temperature on the activity of free and immobilised enzymes.

    Another problem I noticed was that the immobilised beads would cause the distilled water in the test tubes to become cloudy (presumably due to enzyme leakage) after prolonged heating in the test tubes and both the free and immobilised enzymes became denatured at a much lower temperature than I expected.

  1. The Application of Enzymes in Industry and Medicine.

    Thus when glucose can be converted in to fructose its value significantly increases. Fructose is used in diet foods rather than glucose because it is sweeter so less is needed, reducing the calorie content. Enzymes produced by yeast have been used fore thousands of years in brewing and baking.

  2. A Level Biology revision notes

    infusing alpha1-antitrypsin * Smoking o Increases the number of neutrophils in the lungs (more trypsin is secreted into the lungs) o ALSO inactivates alpha1-antitrypsin o This creates an imbalance between proteases (trypsin) and anti-proteases (?1-antitrypsin) o Same lung damage as in ?1-antitrypsin deficiency but much slower Lung structure * Nose

  1. Follicular development

    Continuous GnRH stimulation leads to a negative feedback effect, which suppresses the secretion of FSH and LH, and their function. This is because pulsatile GnRH causes an up-regulation of GnRH receptors (GnRH-R), while continuous GnRH results in the decline in number of GnRH-R and their sensitivity (Liu et al, 2003).

  2. Enzyme Assay.

    An enzyme which is saturated with its substrate under normal conditions will act at a more or less constant rate, while the activity of an enzyme which is not saturated will vary as the concentration of substrate varies. If we want to determine the amount of an enzyme present in

  1. To investigate and compare the activity of immobilised enzymes against enzymes free in solution ...

    is very important for industrial processes, which often need to use high temperatures, extreme pHs and organic solvents to work effectively and produce a higher yield. Costs are also minimized, as the enzymes can be extracted and reused. There are five basic methods for immobilization: * Adsorption (onto a material such as porous glass)

  2. The Commercial Applications of Enzyme Technology.

    An enzyme transducer sensor is an electrical device that registers chemical changes and converts then into an electrical signal. The strength of the current is directionally proportional to the amount of the substance measured. These can also measure blood glucose levels using glucose oxidase by catalyzing the reaction between oxygen and glucose to form gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work